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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168057 matches for " E. Candelario-Jalil "
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Effects of pyruvate administration on infarct volume and neurological deficits following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats
A. Gonzalez-Falcon,E. Candelario-Jalil,M. Garcia-Cabrera,O. S. Leon
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: Recent experimental evidences indicate that pyruvate, the final metabolite of glycolysis, has a remarkable protective effect against different types of brain injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the neuroprotective effect and the neurological outcome after pyruvate administration in a model of ischemic stroke induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats. Three doses of pyruvate (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally 30 min after pMCAO. In other set of experiments, pyruvate was given either before, immediately after ischemia or in a long-term administration paradigm. Functional outcome, mortality and infarct volume were determined 24 h after stroke. Even when the lowest doses of pyruvate reduced mortality and neurological deficits, no concomitant reduction in infarct volume was observed. The highest dose of pyruvate increased cortical infarction by 27% when administered 30 min after pMCAO. In addition, when pyruvate was given before pMCAO, a significant increase in neurological deficits was noticed. Surprisingly, on the contrary of what was found in the case of transient global ischemia, present findings do not support a great neuroprotective role for pyruvate in permanent focal cerebral ischemia, suggesting two distinct mechanisms involved in the effects of this glycolytic metabolite in the ischemic brain.
Selective vulnerability to kainate-induced oxidative damage in different rat brain regions
E. Candelario-Jalil,S. M. Al-Dalain,R. Castillo,G. Martinez,O. S. Fernandez
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: Some markers of oxidative injury were measured in different rat brain areas (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, amygdala/piriform cortex and cerebellum) after the systemic administration of an excitotoxic dose of kainic acid (KA, 9 mg kg(-1) i.p.) at two different sampling times (24 and 48 h). Kainic acid was able to lower markedly (P < 0.05) the glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampus, cerebellum and amygdala/piriform cortex (maximal reduction at 24 h). In a similar way, lipid peroxidation, as assessed by malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal levels, significantly increased (P < 0.05) in hippocampus, cerebellum and amygdala/piriform cortex mainly at 24 h after KA. In addition, hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to basal levels by 24 h after KA application. On the other hand, brain areas such as hypothalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex seem to be less susceptible to KA excitotoxicity. According to these findings, the pattern of oxidative injury induced by systemically administered KA seems to be highly region-specific. Further, our results have shown that a lower antioxidant status (GSH and SOD) seems not to play an important role in the selective vulnerability of certain brain regions because it correlates poorly with increases in markers of oxidative damage.
Delayed treatment with nimesulide reduces measures of oxidative stress following global ischemic brain injury in gerbils
E. Candelario-Jalil,D. Alvarez,N. Merino,O. S. Leon
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: Metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase is one of the primary sources of reactive oxygen species in the ischemic brain. Neuronal overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 has recently been shown to contribute to neurodegeneration following ischemic injury. In the present study, we examined the possibility that the neuroprotective effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide would depend upon reduction of oxidative stress following cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were subjected to 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia followed by 48 h of reperfusion and markers of oxidative stress were measured in hippocampus of gerbils receiving vehicle or nimesulide treatment at three different clinically relevant doses (3, 6 or 12 mg/kg). Compared with vehicle, nimesulide significantly (P<0.05) reduced hippocampal glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation, as assessed by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-alkenals (4-HDA) and lipid hydroperoxides levels, even when the treatment was delayed until 6 h after ischemia. Biochemical evidences of nimesulide neuroprotection were supported by histofluorescence findings using the novel marker of neuronal degeneration Fluoro-Jade B. Few Fluoro-Jade B positive cells were seen in CA1 region of hippocampus in ischemic animals treated with nimesulide compared with vehicle. These results suggest that nimesulide may protect neurons by attenuating oxidative stress and reperfusion injury following the ischemic insult with a wide therapeutic window of protection.
Nimesulide limits kainate-induced oxidative damage in the rat hippocampus
E. Candelario-Jalil,H. H. Ajamieh,S. Sam,G. Martinez,O. S. Leon
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: Kainate induces a marked expression of cyclooxygenase-2 after its systemic administration. Because cyclooxygenase-2 activity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, we investigated the effects of nimesulide, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on kainate-induced in vivo oxidative damage in the rat hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of nimesulide (6 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered three times following kainate application (9 mg/kg, i.p.). After 24 h of kainate administration, the drastic decrease in hippocampal glutathione content and the significant increase in lipid peroxidation were attenuated in nimesulide-treated rats, suggesting that the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 is involved in kainate-mediated free radicals formation.
Post-ischaemic treatment with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide reduces blood-brain barrier disruption and leukocyte infiltration following transient focal cerebral ischaemia in rats
E Candelario-Jalil,A Gonzalez-Falcon,M Garcia-Cabrera,OS Leon,BL Fiebich
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: Several studies suggest that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 plays a pivotal role in the progression of ischaemic brain damage. In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective inhibition of COX-2 with nimesulide (12 mg/kg) and selective inhibition of COX-1 with valeryl salicylate (VAS, 12-120 mg/kg) on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, Evans blue (EB) extravasation and infarct volume in a standardized model of transient focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat. Post-ischaemic treatment with nimesulide markedly reduced the increase in PGE2 levels in the ischaemic cerebral cortex 24 h after stroke and diminished infarct size by 48% with respect to vehicle-treated animals after 3 days of reperfusion. Furthermore, nimesulide significantly attenuated the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and leukocyte infiltration (as measured by EB leakage and MPO activity, respectively) seen at 48 h after the initial ischaemic episode. These studies provide the first experimental evidence that COX-2 inhibition with nimesulide is able to limit BBB disruption and leukocyte infiltration following transient focal cerebral ischaemia. Neuroprotection afforded by nimesulide is observed even when the treatment is delayed until 6 h after the onset of ischaemia, confirming a wide therapeutic window of COX-2 inhibitors in experimental stroke. On the contrary, selective inhibition of COX-1 with VAS had no significant effect on the evaluated parameters. These data suggest that COX-2 activity, but not COX-1 activity, contributes to the progression of focal ischaemic brain injury, and that the beneficial effects observed with non-selective COX inhibitors are probably associated to COX-2 rather than to COX-1 inhibition.
Time course of oxidative damage in different brain regions following transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils
E. Candelario-Jalil,N. H. Mhadu,S. M. Al-Dalain,G. Martinez,O. S. Leon
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: The time course of oxidative damage in different brain regions was investigated in the gerbil model of transient cerebral ischemia. Animals were subjected to both common carotid arteries occlusion for 5 min. After the end of ischemia and at different reperfusion times (2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h and 7 days), markers of lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and copper/zinc containing SOD (Cu/ZnSOD) activities were measured in hippocampus, cortex and striatum. Oxidative damage in hippocampus was maximal at late stages after ischemia (48-96 h) coincident with a significant impairment in glutathione homeostasis. MnSOD increased in hippocampus at 24, 48 and 72 h after ischemia, coincident with the marked reduction in the activity of glutathione-related enzymes. The late disturbance in oxidant-antioxidant balance corresponds with the time course of delayed neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 sector. Cerebral cortex showed early changes in oxidative damage with no significant impairment in antioxidant capacity. Striatal lipid peroxidation significantly increased as early as 2 h after ischemia and persisted until 48 h with respect to the sham-operated group. These results contribute significant information on the timing and factors that influence free radical formation following ischemic brain injury, an essential step in determining effective antioxidant intervention.
Wide therapeutic time window for nimesulide neuroprotection in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat
E. Candelario-Jalil,A. Gonzalez-Falcon,M. Garcia-Cabrera,O. S. Leon,B. L. Fiebich
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: Results from several studies indicate that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in ischemic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the selective COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide on cerebral infarction and neurological deficits in a standardized model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Three doses of nimesulide (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg; i.p.) or vehicle were administered immediately after stroke and additional doses were given at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after ischemia. In other set of experiments, the effect of nimesulide was studied in a situation in which its first administration was delayed for 3-24 h after ischemia. Total, cortical and subcortical infarct volumes and functional outcome (assessed by neurological deficit score and rotarod performance) were determined 3 days after ischemia. The effect of nimesulide on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels in the injured brain was also investigated. Nimesulide dose-dependently reduced infarct volume and improved functional recovery when compared to vehicle. Of interest is the finding that neuroprotection conferred by nimesulide (reduction of infarct size and neurological deficits and improvement of rotarod performance) was also observed when treatment was delayed until 24 h after ischemia. Further, administration of nimesulide in a delayed treatment paradigm completely abolished PGE(2) accumulation in the postischemic brain, suggesting that COX-2 inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia to target the late-occurring inflammatory events which amplify initial damage.
Regional distribution of the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 in the rat brain: accumulation in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum
E. Candelario-Jalil,H. Slawik,I. Ridelis,A. Waschbisch,R. S. Akundi,M. Hull,B. L. Fiebich
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is a major prostanoid produced by the activity of cyclooxygenases (COX) in response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. PGE2 exerts its effects by activating four specific E-type prostanoid receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4). In the present study, we analyzed the expression of the PGE2 receptor EP1 (mRNA and protein) in different regions of the adult rat brain (hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum, prefrontal cerebral cortex, parietal cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum) using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical methods. On a regional basis, levels of EP1 mRNA were the highest in parietal cortex and cerebellum. At the protein level, we found very strong expression of EP1 in cerebellum, as revealed by Western blotting experiments. Furthermore, the present study provides for the first time evidence that the EP1 receptor is highly expressed in the cerebellum, where the Purkinje cells displayed very high immunolabeling of their perikaryon and dendrites, as observed in the immunohistochemical analysis. Results from the present study indicate that the EP1 prostanoid receptor is expressed in specific neuronal populations, which possibly determine the region-specific response to PGE2.
Ascorbic acid enhances the inhibitory effect of aspirin on neuronal cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 production
E. Candelario-Jalil,R. S. Akundi,H. S. Bhatia,K. Lieb,K. Appel,E. Munoz,M. Hull,B. L. Fiebich
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: In the present study, we show that ascorbic acid dose-dependently inhibited interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-mediated PGE2 synthesis in the human neuronal cell line, SK-N-SH. Furthermore, in combination with aspirin, ascorbic acid augmented the inhibitory effect of aspirin on PGE2 synthesis. However, ascorbic acid had no synergistic effect along with other COX inhibitors (SC-58125 and indomethacin). The inhibition of IL-1beta-mediated PGE2 synthesis by ascorbic acid was not due to the inhibition of the expression of COX-2 or microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1). Rather, ascorbic acid dose-dependently (0.1-100 microM) produced a significant reduction in IL-1beta-mediated production of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha), a reliable indicator of free radical formation, suggesting that the effects of ascorbic acid on COX-2-mediated PGE2 biosynthesis may be the result of the maintenance of the neuronal redox status since COX activity is known to be enhanced by oxidative stress. Our results provide in vitro evidence that the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid may depend, at least in part, on its ability to reduce neuronal COX-2 activity and PGE2 synthesis, owing to its antioxidant properties. Further, these experiments suggest that a combination of aspirin with ascorbic acid constitutes a novel approach to render COX-2 more sensitive to inhibition by aspirin, allowing an anti-inflammatory therapy with lower doses of aspirin, thereby avoiding the side effects of the usually high dose aspirin treatment.
The highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor DFU is neuroprotective when given several hours after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils
E. Candelario-Jalil,D. Alvarez,J. M. Castaneda,S. M. Al-Dalain,G. Martinez-Sanchez,N. Merino,O. S. Leon
Quantitative Biology , 2007,
Abstract: Several studies suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 contributes to the delayed progression of ischemic brain damage. In this study we examined whether the highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor DFU reduces neuronal damage when administered several hours after 5 min of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. The extent of ischemic injury was assessed behaviorally by measuring the increases in locomotor activity and by histopathological evaluation of the extent of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cell injury 7 days after ischemia. DFU treatment (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced hippocampal neuronal damage even if the treatment is delayed until 12 h after ischemia. These results suggest that selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for ischemic brain injury.
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