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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 350855 matches for " E. C. Stanley "
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Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian Community
PC Stanley, E Okeke, C Ukoli
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2007,
Abstract: Alcohol abuse has been associated with Trace elements deficiencies which have been known to cause Neuro Psychiatric Disorders. The focus of this study being on locally brewed alcohol is to establish the pattern if any of trace elements derangements. The trace element profile among alcohol abusers in a Nigerian Community was analysed using the 4 – item CAGE instrument to separate alcohol abusers, social drinkers, and total abstainers. The Royal College of Physicians’ criteria 1987 for Alcohol abuse was also used to validate the CAGE score. Using the CAGE score, the following results were obtained, 50 Alcohol abusers (AOA), 47 Social Drinkers (SOD) and 45 Total Abstainers (TOA) emerged out of 162 subjects. Mean values obtained for Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu) were 0.17 nmol/L, 9.03 umol/L, 27.46 umol/L and 25.44 umol/L respectively. This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu can be associated with both deficiency and toxicity of essential and heavy metals. Abstinence therefore should continue to be the main stay of counseling.
Pattern of Neurological Disorders among HIV Seropositive Adult Nigerians with Psychiatric Moridity
P.C. Stanley,E.G. Asekomeh,C.N. Stanley
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The neurological complications of HIV infection are still an unresolved problem and contribute importantly to patient morbidity and mortality. Myriads of neurological conditions can complicate HIV/AIDS. These include directly HIV-associated complications, opportunistic infections and neoplasms. Neurological complications can also be provoked by so called immune reconstitution phenomena. Overall, secondary disease of the CNS occurs in approximately one-third of patients with AIDS. Neurological conditions could coexist with psychiatric illnesses especially in a setting of immunosuppression as seen in HIV/AIDS. This study aims to determine the pattern of neurological comorbidity among HIV seropositive psychiatric patients in a tertiary centre in Nigeria and hence contribute to the existing (albeit scanty) knowledge base of NeuroAIDS in Africa. All patients presenting at the neuropsychiatry Out-patient Clinics and the Accident and Emergency department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching hospital between January 2003 and December 2005 were studied prospectively for neurological comorbidity and screened for HIV infection. One thousand six hundred and eleven psychiatric patients were seen and tested for HIV seropositivity over the study period. 61(3.8%) were found to be positive for HIV I and/or II. 31 (50.8%) had no neurological deficit, 29(46.0%) had acute/subacute encephalitis, 13 (21.3%) had peripheral neuropathies, 7 (11.5%) each had Cranial nerve palsies (I, V, VII), dysarthria /aphasia, AIDS dementia complex and epilepsy, 6 (9.8%) each had diffuse headache, meningism and amnestic syndrome, 4 (6.8%) had hemiparesis/hemiplegia, while 3 (4.9%) each had severe hemicranial headache and myopathy. There is a high incidence of neurological comorbidity among psychiatric patients with HIV infection. Mental health practitioners need to be alert to this possibility especially where life threatening conditions exist. In most African countries, economic and medical resources are less than adequate to deal with a problem of this magnitude.
Computational studies of the effects of myocardial blood flow reductions on cardiac metabolism
Jennifer E Salem, William C Stanley, Marco E Cabrera
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-3-15
Abstract: Flow was reduced over a wide range and for a sufficient duration in order to investigate the sequence of events that occur during the transition to a new metabolic steady state.Simulation results indicated multiple time-dependent controls over both glycolysis and lactate formation.Changes in phosphorylation state and glucose uptake only significantly affect the initial phase of the glycolytic response to ischemia, while glycogen breakdown exerts control over glycolysis during the entire duration of ischemia. Similarly, changes in the redox state affect the rates of lactate formation and release primarily during the initial transient phase of the response to the reductions in blood flow, while the rate of glycolysis controls the rate of lactate formation throughout the entire period of adaptation.The primary effect of reduced myocardial blood flow is a decrease in the rate of aerobic ATP resynthesis, an increase in the cellular redox state (NADH/NAD+), acceleration of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, accumulation of lactate, and a switch from net lactate uptake to net lactate release by the myocardium. Studies in pigs and dogs have shown that the extent of the metabolic derangement (e.g., increased glycolytic rate and lactate production) during reduced myocardial blood flow is dependent upon the severity and duration of flow reduction [1-6]. Glucose uptake increases during moderate ischemia, but decreases in severely ischemic myocardium due to limited glucose delivery [7,8], causing a greater reliance on glycogen for glycolytic substrate. The classic switch to net lactate release with the onset of reduced myocardial blood flow (30–50% reduction) gradually reverses back to no net lactate exchange after 40 to 120 minutes [9]. The control mechanisms responsible for the gradual reduction in lactate release are unclear.At a given demand, O2 delivery to the myocardium determines the rate of oxidative phosphorylation, which sets the cellular NADH/NAD+ and ATP/ADP ratios, both
Pattern of Weight Changes Amongst Non-Psychotic Depressive Subjects on Amitriptyline Treatment
P.C. Stanley,E.G. Asekomeh
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study investigated the pattern of changes in Weight and Body Mass Indices changes among 25 Non-psychotic Depressives on daily 50 mg of Amitryptilline, who were age and sex matched with the control group. Diagnosis was based on DSM (IV) (1994). Measurements of Weight and Body Mass Indices (BMI) after 2 and 6 weeks from the commencement of the study showed significant differences. The result suggests that amitryptilline is associated with weight gain and increased BMI in Nigerian Africans with non-psychotic depression.
Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex
Dara A. Stanley, Mairi E. Knight, Jane C. Stout
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065516
Abstract: The Bombus sensu stricto species complex is a widespread group of cryptic bumblebee species which are important pollinators of many crops and wild plants. These cryptic species have, until now, largely been grouped together in ecological studies, and so little is known about their individual colony densities, foraging ranges or habitat requirements, which can be influenced by land use at a landscape scale. We used mass-flowering oilseed rape fields as locations to sample bees of this complex, as well as the second most common visitor to oilseed rape B. lapidarius, and molecular RFLP methods to distinguish between the cryptic species. We then used microsatellite genotyping to identify sisters and estimate colony densities, and related both proportions of cryptic species and their colony densities to the composition of the landscape surrounding the fields. We found B. lucorum was the most common member of the complex present in oilseed rape followed by B. terrestris. B. cryptarum was also present in all but one site, with higher proportions found in the east of the study area. High numbers of bumblebee colonies were estimated to be using oilseed rape fields as a forage resource, with B. terrestris colony numbers higher than previous estimates from non-mass-flowering fields. We also found that the cryptic species responded differently to surrounding landscape composition: both relative proportions of B. cryptarum in samples and colony densities of B. lucorum were negatively associated with the amount of arable land in the landscape, while proportions and colony densities of other species did not respond to landscape variables at the scale measured. This suggests that the cryptic species have different ecological requirements (which may be scale-dependent) and that oilseed rape can be an important forage resource for many colonies of bumblebees. Given this, we recommend sustainable management of this crop to benefit bumblebees.
Recovery of Interdependent Networks
M. A. Di Muro,C. E. La Rocca,H. E. Stanley,S. Havlin,L. A. Braunstein
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy of nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery $\gamma$, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction $1-p$ of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane $\gamma-p$ of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot avoid the system collapse.
Dynamics and Configurational Entropy in the LW Model for Supercooled Orthoterphenyl
S. Mossa,E. La Nave,H. E. Stanley,C. Donati,F. Sciortino,P. Tartaglia
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.041205
Abstract: We study thermodynamic and dynamic properties of a rigid model of the fragile glass forming liquid orthoterphenyl. A system of N=343 molecules is considered in a wide range of densities and temperatures, reaching simulation times up to 1 microsecond. Working within the inherent structures thermodynamic formalism, we present results for the temperature and density dependence of the number, depth and shape of the basins of the potential energy surface. We evaluate the configurational entropy of the system and we study the connection between thermodynamical and dynamical properties. We confirm that the temperature dependence of the configurational entropy and of the diffusion constant, as well as the inverse of the characteristic structural relaxation time, are strongly connected in supercooled states.
A Multiwavelength Study of Three Hybrid Blazars
E. C. Stanley,P. Kharb,M. L. Lister,H. L. Marshall,C. O'Dea,S. Baum
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045-188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216-038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045-188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216-038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find this is in good agreement with previously studied hybrid sources, where high-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via IC/CMB and the low-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via synchrotron emission. This supports the idea that it is total radio power rather than FR morphology that determines the X-ray emission mechanism. We found no significant asymmetries in the diffuse X-ray emission surrounding the host galaxies. Sources PKS 1045-188 and 8C 1849+670 show significant differences in their radio and X-ray termination points, which may result from the deceleration of highly relativistic bulk motion.
Cbl-c Ubiquitin Ligase Activity Is Increased via the Interaction of Its RING Finger Domain with a LIM Domain of the Paxillin Homolog, Hic 5
Philip E. Ryan,Stephen C. Kales,Rajgopal Yadavalli,Marion M. Nau,Han Zhang,Stanley Lipkowitz
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049428
Abstract: Cbl proteins (Cbl, Cbl-b and Cbl-c) are ubiquitin ligases that are critical regulators of tyrosine kinase signaling. In this study we identify a new Cbl-c interacting protein, Hydrogen peroxide Induced Construct 5 (Hic-5). The two proteins interact through a novel interaction mediated by the RING finger of Cbl-c and the LIM2 domain of Hic-5. Further, this interaction is mediated and dependent on specific zinc coordinating complexes within the RING finger and LIM domain. Binding of Hic-5 to Cbl-c leads to an increase in the ubiquitin ligase activity of Cbl-c once Cbl-c has been activated by Src phosphorylation or through an activating phosphomimetic mutation. In addition, co-transfection of Hic-5 with Cbl-c leads to an increase in Cbl-c mediated ubiquitination of the EGFR. These data suggest that Hic-5 enhances Cbl-c ubiquitin ligase activity once Cbl-c has been phosphorylated and activated. Interactions between heterologous RING fingers have been shown to activate E3s. This is the first demonstration of enhancement of ubiquitin ligase activity of a RING finger ubiquitin ligase by the direct interaction of a LIM zinc coordinating domain.
Functional Deficits in nNOSμ-Deficient Skeletal Muscle: Myopathy in nNOS Knockout Mice
Justin M. Percival, Kendra N. E. Anderson, Paul Gregorevic, Jeffrey S. Chamberlain, Stanley C. Froehner
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003387
Abstract: Skeletal muscle nNOSμ (neuronal nitric oxide synthase mu) localizes to the sarcolemma through interaction with the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein (DAG) complex, where it synthesizes nitric oxide (NO). Disruption of the DAG complex occurs in dystrophinopathies and sarcoglycanopathies, two genetically distinct classes of muscular dystrophy characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass, muscle weakness and increased fatigability. DAG complex instability leads to mislocalization and downregulation of nNOSμ; but this is thought to play a minor role in disease pathogenesis. This view persists without knowledge of the role of nNOS in skeletal muscle contractile function in vivo and has influenced gene therapy approaches to dystrophinopathy, the majority of which do not restore sarcolemmal nNOSμ. We address this knowledge gap by evaluating skeletal muscle function in nNOS knockout (KN1) mice using an in situ approach, in which the muscle is maintained in its normal physiological environment. nNOS-deficiency caused reductions in skeletal muscle bulk and maximum tetanic force production in male mice only. Furthermore, nNOS-deficient muscles from both male and female mice exhibited increased susceptibility to contraction-induced fatigue. These data suggest that aberrant nNOSμ signaling can negatively impact three important clinical features of dystrophinopathies and sarcoglycanopathies: maintenance of muscle bulk, force generation and fatigability. Our study suggests that restoration of sarcolemmal nNOSμ expression in dystrophic muscles may be more important than previously appreciated and that it should be a feature of any fully effective gene therapy-based intervention.
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