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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167873 matches for " E. Burkert "
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Constraints of the Clumpyness of Dark Matter Halos Through Heating of the Disk Galaxies
E. Ardi,T. Tsuchiya,A. Burkert
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/377684
Abstract: Motivated by the presence of numerous dark matter clumps in the Milky Way's halo as expected from the cold dark matter cosmological model, we conduct numerical simulations to examine the heating of the disk. We construct an initial galaxy model in equilibrium, with a stable thin disk. The disk interacts with dark matter clumps for about 5 Gyr. Three physical effects are examined : first the mass spectrum of the dark matter clumps, second the initial thickness of the galactic disk, and third the spatial distribution of the clumps. We find that the massive end of the mass spectrum determines the amount of disk heating. Thicker disks suffer less heating. There is a certain thickness at which the heating owing to the interaction with the clumps becomes saturates. We also find that the heating produced by the model which mimics the distribution found in Standard CDM cosmology is significant and too high to explain the observational constraints. On the other hand, our model that corresponds to the clump distribution in a $\Lambda$CDM cosmology produces no significant heating. This result suggests that the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology is preferable with respect to the Standard CDM cosmology in explaining the thickness of the Milky Way.
The properties of the ISM in disc galaxies with stellar feedback
C. L. Dobbs,A. Burkert,J. E. Pringle
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19346.x
Abstract: We perform calculations of isolated disc galaxies to investigate how the properties of the ISM, the nature of molecular clouds, and the global star formation rate depend on the level of stellar feedback. We adopt a simple physical model, which includes a galactic potential, a standard cooling and heating prescription of the ISM, and self gravity of the gas. Stellar feedback is implemented by injecting energy into dense, gravitationally collapsing gas, but is independent of the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation. We obtain fractions of gas, and filling factors for different phases of the ISM in reasonable ageement with observations. Supernovae are found to be vital to reproduce the scale heights of the different components of the ISM, and velocity dispersions. The GMCs formed in the simulations display mass spectra similar to the observations, their normalisation dependent on the level of feedback. We find ~40 per cent of the clouds exhibit retrograde rotation, induced by cloud-cloud collisions. The star formation rates we obtain are in good agreement with the observed Schmidt-Kennicutt relation, and are not strongly dependent on the star formation efficiency we assume, being largely self regulated by the feedback. We also investigate the effect of spiral structure by comparing calculations with and without the spiral component of the potential. The main difference with a spiral potential is that more massive GMCs are able to accumulate in the spiral arms. Thus we are able to reproduce massive GMCs, and the spurs seen in many grand design galaxies, even with stellar feedback. The presence of the spiral potential does not have an explicit effect on the star formation rate, but can increase the star formation rate indirectly by enabling the formation of long-lived, strongly bound clouds.
First Investigation of the Combined Impact of Ionizing Radiation and Momentum Winds from a Massive Star on a Self-Gravitating Core
Judith Ngoumou,David Hubber,James E. Dale,Andreas Burkert
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/798/1/32
Abstract: Massive stars shape the surrounding ISM by emitting ionizing photons and ejecting material through stellar winds. To study the impact of the momentum from the wind of a massive star on the surrounding neutral or ionized material, we implemented a new HEALPix-based momentum conserving wind scheme in the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code SEREN. A qualitative study of the impact of the feedback from an O7.5-like star on a self gravitating sphere shows that, on its own, the transfer of momentum from a wind onto cold surrounding gas has both a compressing and dispersing effect. It mostly affects gas at low and intermediate densities. When combined with a stellar source's ionizing UV radiation, we find the momentum driven wind to have little direct effect on the gas. We conclude that, during a massive star's main sequence, the UV ionizing radiation is the main feedback mechanism shaping and compressing the cold gas. Overall, the wind's effects on the dense gas dynamics and on the triggering of star formation are very modest. The structures formed in the ionization-only simulation and in the combined feedback simulation are remarkably similar. However, in the combined feedback case, different SPH particles end up being compressed. This indicates that the microphysics of gas mixing differ between the two feedback simulations and that the winds can contribute to the localized redistribution and reshuffling of gas.
On the Formation of Helium Double Degenerate Stars and Pre-Cataclysmic Variables
Eric L. Sandquist,Ronald E. Taam,Andreas Burkert
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308687
Abstract: The evolution of low mass (M < 2.5 Msun) binaries through the common envelope phase has been studied for systems in which one member is on its first ascent of the red giant branch. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations have been carried out for a range of red giant masses (1 - 2 Msun) with degenerate helium cores (0.28 - 0.45 Msun) and companions (0.1 - 0.45 Msun) for initial orbital periods ranging from about 15 - 1000 days. The results suggest that these low mass binary systems can survive the common envelope phase provided that the helium degenerate core is more massive than about 0.2 - 0.25 Msun and that the mass of the red giant progenitor is less than about 2 Msun. For the observed short period double degenerate systems, it is found that evolutionary scenarios involving two phases of common envelope evolution are not likely and that a scenario involving an Algol-like phase of mass transfer followed by a common envelope phase is viable, suggesting that the first-formed white dwarf is often reheated by nuclear burning on its surface. A formation mechanism for two subdwarf B stars observed in eclipsing short period binaries with low mass main sequence stars is also described.
Monte Carlo simulations of the disk white dwarf population
E. Garcia-Berro,S. Torres,J. Isern,A. Burkert
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: In order to understand the dynamical and chemical evolution of our Galaxy it is of fundamental importance to study the local neighborhood. White dwarf stars are ideal candidates to probe the history of the solar neighborhood, since these ``fossil'' stars have very long evolutionary time-scales and, at the same time, their evolution is relatively well understood. In fact, the white dwarf luminosity function has been used for this purpose by several authors. However, a long standing problem arises from the relatively poor statistics of the samples, especially at low luminosities. In this paper we assess the statistical reliability of the white dwarf luminosity function by using a Monte Carlo approach.
Giant Molecular clouds: what are they made from, and how do they get there?
C. L. Dobbs,J. E. Pringle,A. Burkert
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21558.x
Abstract: We analyse the results of four simulations of isolated galaxies: two with a rigid spiral potential of fixed pattern speed, but with different degrees of star-formation induced feedback, one with an axisymmetric galactic potential and one with a `live' self-gravitating stellar component. Since we use a Lagrangian method we are able to select gas that lies within giant molecular clouds (GMCs) at a particular timeframe, and to then study the properties of this gas at earlier and later times. We find that gas which forms GMCs is not typical of the interstellar medium at least 50 Myr before the clouds form and reaches mean densities within an order of magnitude of mean cloud densities by around 10 Myr before. The gas in GMCs takes at least 50 Myr to return to typical ISM gas after dispersal by stellar feedback, and in some cases the gas is never fully recycled. We also present a study of the two-dimensional, vertically-averaged velocity fields within the ISM. We show that the velocity fields corresponding to the shortest timescales (that is, those timescales closest to the immediate formation and dissipation of the clouds) can be readily understood in terms of the various cloud formation and dissipation mechanisms. Properties of the flow patterns can be used to distinguish the processes which drive converging flows (e.g.\ spiral shocks, supernovae) and thus molecular cloud formation, and we note that such properties may be detectable with future observations of nearby galaxies.
Why are most molecular clouds not gravitationally bound?
C. L. Dobbs,A. Burkert,J. E. Pringle
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18371.x
Abstract: The most recent observational evidence seems to indicate that giant molecular clouds are predominantly gravitationally unbound objects. In this paper we show that this is a natural consequence of a scenario in which cloud-cloud collisions and stellar feedback regulate the internal velocity dispersion of the gas, and so prevent global gravitational forces from becoming dominant. Thus, while the molecular gas is for the most part gravitationally unbound, local regions within the denser parts of the gas (within the clouds) do become bound and are able to form stars. We find that the observations, in terms of distributions of virial parameters and cloud structures, can be well modelled provided that the star formation efficiency in these bound regions is of order 5 - 10 percent. We also find that in this picture the constituent gas of individual molecular clouds changes over relatively short time scales, typically a few Myr.
Galactic Disk Formation and the Angular Momentum Problem
Andreas Burkert
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Galactic disk formation requires knowledge about the initial conditions under which disk galaxies form, the boundary conditions that affect their secular evolution and the micro-physical processes that drive the multi-phase interstellar medium and regulate their star formation history. Most of these ingredients are still poorly understood. Recent high-resolution observations of young high-redshift disk galaxies provide insight into early phases of galactic disk formation and evolution. Combined with low-redshift disk data these observations should eventually allow us to reconstruct the origin and evolution of late-type galaxies. I summarize some of the major problems that need to be addressed for a more consistent picture of galactic disk formation and evolution.
Do dwarf spheroidal galaxies contain dark matter?
A. Burkert
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/310433
Abstract: The amount of dark matter in the four galactic dwarf spheroidals with large mass-to-light ratios is investigated. Sextans has a cut-off radius which is equal to the expected tidal radius, assuming a high mass-to-light ratio. This satellite very likely is dark matter dominated. Carina, Ursa Minor and Draco, on the other hand, cannot contain a dominating dark matter component if the observed 'extra-tidal' stars are located exterior to the tidal radii of these systems. The evidence for tidal stripping in the absence of dark matter is also supported by the fact that the observed cut-off radii of all three satellites are equal to their tidal radii, assuming a low, globular cluster like mass-to-light ratio. The large velocity dispersions of these galaxies, on the other hand, seem to provide strong evidence for a massive dark matter component. In this case, the 'extra-tidal' stars lie deeply embedded in the dark matter potential wells of the satellites. These stars then would represent a gravitationally bound, extended stellar component with unknown origin.
The Structure of Dark Matter Haloes in Dwarf Galaxies
A. Burkert
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1086/309560
Abstract: Recent observations indicate that dark matter haloes have flat central density profiles. Cosmological simulations with non-baryonic dark matter predict however self similar haloes with central density cusps. This contradiction has lead to the conclusion that dark matter must be baryonic. Here it is shown that the dark matter haloes of dwarf spiral galaxies represent a one parameter family with self similar density profiles. The observed global halo parameters are coupled with each other through simple scaling relations which can be explained by the standard cold dark matter model if one assumes that all the haloes formed from density fluctuations with the same primordial amplitude. We find that the finite central halo densities correlate with the other global parameters. This result rules out scenarios where the flat halo cores formed subsequently through violent dynamical processes in the baryonic component. These cores instead provide important information on the origin and nature of dark matter in dwarf galaxies.
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