Abstract:
We present a type of grism, a series combination of transmission grating and prism, in which we reduce the number of diffraction orders and achieve a configuration with very high angular dispersion. The grism can be fabricated from a single dielectric material and requires no metallic or dielectric film layers for high transmission diffraction efficiency. One can reach 100% in the -1st transmission diffraction order and the equal damage threshold as the dielectric bulk material. We realized such an element in fused silica with an efficiency of more then 99%. The bevel backside reflection is reduced by a statistical antireflective structure, so we measured an efficiency of the entire grism of 95% at a single wavelength.

Abstract:
All-reflective interferometry based on nano-structured diffraction gratings offers new possibilities for gravitational wave detection. We investigate an all-reflective Fabry-Perot interferometer concept in 2nd order Littrow mount. The input-output relations for such a resonator are derived treating the grating coupler by means of a scattering matrix formalism. A low loss dielectric reflection grating has been designed and manufactured to test the properties of such a grating cavity.

Abstract:
We report on the optical characterization of an ultra-high diffraction efficiency grating in 1st order Littrow configuration. The apparatus used was an optical cavity built from the grating under investigation and an additional high reflection mirror. Measurement of the cavity finesse provided precise information about the grating's diffraction efficiency and its optical loss. We measured a finesse of 1580 from which we deduced a diffraction efficiency of (99.635$\pm$0.016)% and an overall optical loss due to scattering and absorption of just 0.185 %. Such high quality gratings, including the tool used for their characterization, might apply for future gravitational wave detectors. For example the demonstrated cavity itself presents an all-reflective, low-loss Fabry-Perot resonator that might replace conventional arm cavities in advanced high power Michelson interferometers.

Abstract:
We experimentally demonstrate a three-dimensional chiral optical metamaterial that exhibits an asymmetric transmission for forwardly and backwardly propagating linearly polarized light. The observation of this novel effect requires a metamaterial composed of three-dimensional chiral metaatoms without any rotational symmetry. Our analysis is supported by a systematic investigation of the transmission matrices for arbitrarily complex, lossy media that allows deriving a simple criterion for asymmetric transmission in an arbitrary polarization base. Contrary to physical intuition, in general the polarization eigenstates in such three-dimensional and low-symmetry metamaterials do not obey fxed relations and the associated transmission matrices cannot be symmetrized.

Abstract:
A concept for a low loss all-reflective cavity coupler is experimentally demonstrated at a wavelength of 1064 nm. A 1450 nm period dielectric reflection grating with a diffraction efficiency of 0.58 % in the -1st order is used in 2nd order Littrow configuration as a coupler to form a cavity with a finesse of 400. The application of such reflective low-loss cavity couplers in future generations of gravitational-wave detectors as well as some implementation issues are discussed.

Abstract:
We present the experimental reconstruction of sub-wavelength features from the far-field of sparse optical objects. We show that it is sufficient to know that the object is sparse, and only that, and recover 100 nm features with the resolution of 30 nm, for an illuminating wavelength of \lambda=532 nm. Our technique works in real-time, requires no scanning, and can be implemented in all existing microscopes - optical and non-optical.

Abstract:
Waveguide mirrors possess nano-structured surfaces which can potentially provide a significant reduction in thermal noise over conventional dielectric mirrors. To avoid introducing additional phase noise from motion of the mirror transverse to the reflected light, however, they must possess a mechanism to suppress the phase effects associated with the incident light translating across the nano-structured surface. It has been shown that with carefully chosen parameters this additional phase noise can be suppressed. We present an experimental measurement of the coupling of transverse to longitudinal displacements in such a waveguide mirror designed for 1064 nm light. We place an upper limit on the level of measured transverse to longitudinal coupling of one part in seventeen thousand with 95% confidence, representing a significant improvement over a previously measured grating mirror.

Abstract:
We present the experimental reconstruction of sub-wavelength features from the far-field intensity of sparse optical objects: sparsity-based sub-wavelength imaging combined with phase-retrieval. As examples, we demonstrate the recovery of random and ordered arrangements of 100 nm features with the resolution of 30 nm, with an illuminating wavelength of 532 nm. Our algorithmic technique relies on minimizing the number of degrees of freedom; it works in real-time, requires no scanning, and can be implemented in all existing microscopes - optical and non-optical.

Abstract:
The structure of the boundary layer region between the disc and a comparatively slowly rotating star is studied using a causal prescription for viscosity. The vertically integrated viscous stress relaxes towards its equilibrium value on a relaxation timescale $\tau$, which naturally yields a finite speed of propagation for viscous information. For a standard alpha prescription with alpha in the range 0.1-0.01, and ratio of viscous speed to sound speed in the range 0.02-0.5, details in the boundary layer are strongly affected by the causality constraint. We study both steady state polytropic models and time dependent models, taking into account energy dissipation and transport. Steady state solutions are always subviscous with a variety of $\Omega$ profiles which may exhibit near discontinuities. For alpha =0.01 and small viscous speeds, the boundary layer adjusted to a near steady state. A long wavelength oscillation generated by viscous overstability could be seen at times near the outer boundary. Being confined there, the boundary layer remained almost stationary. However, for alpha =0.1 and large viscous speeds, short wavelength disturbances were seen throughout which could significantly affect the power output in the boundary layer. This could be potentially important in producing time dependent behaviour in accreting systems such as CVs and protostars.

Abstract:
The strength and direction of migration of low mass embedded planets depends on the disk's thermodynamic state, where the internal dissipation is balanced by radiative transport, and the migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing embryos. Very important parameters determining the structure of disks, and hence the direction of migration, are the viscosity and the adiabatic index. In this paper we investigate the influence of different viscosity prescriptions (alpha-type and constant) and adiabatic indices on disk structures and how this affects the migration rate of planets embedded in such disks. We perform 3D numerical simulations of accretion disks with embedded planets. We use the explicit/implicit hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes full tensor viscosity and radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation, as well as a proper equation of state for molecular hydrogen. The migration of embedded 20Earthmass planets is studied. Low-viscosity disks have cooler temperatures and the migration rates of embedded planets tend toward the isothermal limit. In these disks, planets migrate inwards even in the fully radiative case. The effect of outward migration can only be sustained if the viscosity in the disk is large. Overall, the differences between the treatments for the equation of state seem to play a more important role in disks with higher viscosity. A change in the adiabatic index and in the viscosity changes the zero-torque radius that separates inward from outward migration. For larger viscosities, temperatures in the disk become higher and the zero-torque radius moves to larger radii, allowing outward migration of a 20 Earth-mass planet to persist over an extended radial range. In combination with large disk masses, this may allow for an extended period of the outward migration of growing protoplanetary cores.