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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 563458 matches for " E. A. Brisibe "
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Inhibitory Action of Artemisia annua Extracts and Artemisinin on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Solution
P. C. Okafor,V. E. Ebiekpe,C. F. Azike,G. E. Egbung,E. A. Brisibe,E. E. Ebenso
International Journal of Corrosion , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/768729
Abstract: The action of ethanol (EEAA), acid (AEAA), and toluene (TEAA) extracts from Artemisia annua and Artemisinin (ATS) on mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions was investigated using gravimetric and gasometric techniques. The extracts and ATS functioned as good inhibitors, and their inhibition efficiencies (%IE) followed the trend: EEAA > AEAA > TEAA > ATS. %IE increased with increase in inhibitors concentration and decreased with increase in temperature. The enhanced %IE values of the extracts were attributed to synergistic effect of the components of the plant extracts with ATS. The adsorption of the inhibitors was consistent with Langmuir isotherm. Physisorption is proposed as the mechanism of inhibition. 1. Introduction Present trend in research on environmental friendly corrosion inhibitors is taking us back to exploring the use of natural products as possible sources of cheap, nontoxic, and ecofriendly corrosion inhibitors. These natural products are either synthesized or extracted from aromatic herbs, spices, and medicinal plants. Of increasing interest is the use of medicinal plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for metals in acid solutions. This is because these plants serve as incredibly rich sources of naturally synthesized chemical compounds that are environmentally acceptable, inexpensive, readily available, and renewable sources of materials [1, 2]. These chemicals include alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, tannins, saponins, fats and oils, and carbohydrates, and so forth [3–11]. The complex composition of phytochemicals in plant extracts makes it difficult to attempt to assign the inhibition ability to a particular constituent. Some researchers have, however, ascribed the inhibition efficiency of these medicinal plants to their active components used for medical purposes [3]. We have recently attempted to assign the inhibition ability to some constituents by studying the inhibitive effect of different parts of a given plant with variable concentrations of the phytochemicals on acid corrosion [4–7]. Another most probable method would be the use of different solvents in the extraction process and comparing their inhibition efficiencies. This is yet to be explored in most of the reported work on corrosion inhibition of plant extracts. Artemisia annua is native to Asia, most probably China, but is currently cultivated in many countries including Nigeria, mainly as a source of artemisinin, an important natural sesquiterpene lactone with antimalarial effect against susceptible and multidrug resistant Plasmodium spp. The plant is a
Socio-demographic characteristics of alcohol abusers in a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria
S Brisibe, B Ordinioha
Annals of African Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Causal relationship has been established between alcohol and more than 60 types of disease and injury. Despite this, alcohol is still widely consumed in several communities in Nigeria, and sometimes considered a health tonic. This study described the pattern, prevalence, and factors associated with alcohol abuse in a typical Ijaw community, where alcohol is produced and consumed in large quantities. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria using an analytical cross-sectional study design. The data were collected from members of the community aged 16 to 65 years, using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test questionnaire and clinical examination for hepatomegaly, tongue tremor, and hand tremor. Results: A total of 322 subjects, comprising 166 men and 156 women were studied. They had an average age of 41.4 ± 2.5 years, were mostly farmers (43.17%), married (66.15%), and had at most primary school education (62.42%). More than 90% of the subjects took alcohol in the preceding year, with more of them (43%) preferring the locally produced drinks. About 33% of the subjects had harmful drinking, while 12.73% had alcohol dependence problem. There is no significant age difference between the alcohol abusers and abstainers/social drinkers (P > 0.05), but alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to be males (P < 0.001), in polygamous marriages (P < 0.00001), had lower educational status (P < 0.0001), likely to be practitioners of the traditional religion (P < 0.0001), and more likely to be engaged in palm wine tapping. Conclusion: Alcohol is widely consumed in the community, but the prevalence of abuse was moderate, mainly due to cultural restrictions. Sales restrictions might be needed as the drinking habits of members of the community change with urbanization. DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.82066
Socio-demographic characteristics of alcohol abusers in a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria
Brisibe Seiyefa,Ordinioha Best
Annals of African Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Causal relationship has been established between alcohol and more than 60 types of disease and injury. Despite this, alcohol is still widely consumed in several communities in Nigeria, and sometimes considered a health tonic. This study described the pattern, prevalence, and factors associated with alcohol abuse in a typical Ijaw community, where alcohol is produced and consumed in large quantities. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria using an analytical cross-sectional study design. The data were collected from members of the community aged 16 to 65 years, using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test questionnaire and clinical examination for hepatomegaly, tongue tremor, and hand tremor. Results: A total of 322 subjects, comprising 166 men and 156 women were studied. They had an average age of 41.4 ± 2.5 years, were mostly farmers (43.17%), married (66.15%), and had at most primary school education (62.42%). More than 90% of the subjects took alcohol in the preceding year, with more of them (43%) preferring the locally produced drinks. About 33% of the subjects had harmful drinking, while 12.73% had alcohol dependence problem. There is no significant age difference between the alcohol abusers and abstainers/social drinkers (P > 0.05), but alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to be males (P < 0.001), in polygamous marriages (P < 0.00001), had lower educational status (P < 0.0001), likely to be practitioners of the traditional religion (P < 0.0001), and more likely to be engaged in palm wine tapping. Conclusion: Alcohol is widely consumed in the community, but the prevalence of abuse was moderate, mainly due to cultural restrictions. Sales restrictions might be needed as the drinking habits of members of the community change with urbanization.
Dietary inclusion of dried Artemisia annua leaves for management of coccidiosis and growth enhancement in chickens
EA Brisibe, UE Umoren, PU Owai, F Brisibe
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Coccidiosis constitutes a major problem in poultry rearing. Recourse to the use of prophylactic chemotherapy, for example, is only a short-term solution. Ostensibly, the drugs used are effective but they are also expensive. In the present study, the influence of adding dried Artemisia annua L. leaves as a botanical coccidistat in coccidia-infested broilers was investigated. Concurrently, the feed consumption pattern and weight gain in broilers as well as egg production rate and size in layers, respectively, were also evaluated. In untreated broilers, trophozoites increased an average of four-fold over 84 days. Inhibition of parasite growth in birds fed with rations containing A. annua leaves was observed just like with a commercial anticoccidial therapy. In addition, there was a higher feed intake which resulted in higher weight gain in the broilers. Weekly egg production rate, size and intensity of egg yolk colour were equally improved in all the layers fed with a mixture of commercial mash and A. annua leaves. This is an implicit indication that the addition of A. annua leaves to poultry feed serves as a potentially rich source of medication and nourishment for the birds.
Building a golden triangle for the production and use of artemisinin derivatives against falciparum malaria in Africa
EA Brisibe, EA Uyoh, F Brisibe, PM Magalh es, JFS Ferreira
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Use of the conventional quinoline- and sulphanamide-based drugs for the symptomatic treatment of malaria is gradually being replaced by artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) due to increasing resistance by the Plasmodium parasite. This development has drastically increased artemisinin demand worldwide, and Artemisia annua L. is currently the only commercial source for the supply of this vital antimalarial drug to the international market. Recent advances, however, demonstrate that the production of isoprenoid precursors in microorganisms is a feasible complementary strategy that would help reduce artemisinin cost in the future. The key genes encoding for enzymes regulating the biosynthesis of artemisinin in planta are fully understood to enable metabolic engineering of the pathway, and results from pilot genetic engineering studies in microbial strains thus far are very inspiring. This review, therefore, explores the current status of artemisinin derived drugs against malaria and highlights some implications of crop agronomy, biotechnology and solvent extraction strategies in enhancing the total yield of artemisinin for the production of ACTs, which are responsible for saving the lives of countless numbers of patients in malaria-stricken societies and are currently in very high demand, especially in Africa.
HIV-1 nef suppression by virally encoded microRNA
Shinya Omoto, Masafumi Ito, Yutaka Tsutsumi, Yuko Ichikawa, Harumi Okuyama, Ebiamadon Brisibe, Nitin K Saksena, Yoichi R Fujii
Retrovirology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-1-44
Abstract: Here, we show the possibility that nef-derived miRNAs are produced in HIV-1 persistently infected cells. Furthermore, nef short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that corresponded to a predicted nef miRNA (~25 nt, miR-N367) can block HIV-1 Nef expression in vitro and the suppression by shRNA/miR-N367 would be related with low viremia in an LTNP (15-2-2). In the 15-2-2 model mice, the weight loss, which may be rendered by nef was also inhibited by shRNA/miR-N367 corresponding to suppression of nef expression in vivo.These data suggest that nef/U3 miRNAs produced in HIV-1-infected cells may suppress both Nef function and HIV-1 virulence through the RNAi pathway.The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which infect humans cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has reached pandemic levels in some societies, especially those in Southern Africa and Southeast Asia [1]. Given the immensity of HIV pandemic, the development of a rather safe and cheap, effective therapeutics, has become the main focus [2]. Several strategies attempted to control the spread of AIDS have not shown major breakthrough and the vaccines have shown little promise as far as their efficacy is concerned. However, one approach used extensively in other diploid organisms, which now has tremendous potential to encourage antiviral defense against HIV appears to be double stranded RNA-dependent post-transcriptional gene silencing or RNA interference (RNAi).RNAi is a defense mechanism against aberrant transcripts that may be produced during viral infection and mobilization of transposons [3,4]. The RNAi pathway has been implicated in silencing transposons in the C. elegans germline [5,6], silencing stellate repeats in the Drosophila germline, and the response against invading viruses in plants [7]. Post-transcriptional regulation by RNAi is mediated by small non-coding RNAs (~25-nucleotides; nt). Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are short RNA duplexes that direct the degradation of homologous transcripts [8].
On chromospheric variations modeling for main-sequence stars of G and K spectral classes  [PDF]
E. A Bruevich
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.38087
Abstract: We present a method of 13 late-type main-sequence stars chromospheric flux observation data calculations. These Sun-like stars have well-determined cyclic flux variations similar to the 11-year solar activity cycle. Our flux prediction is based on chromospheric HK emission time series measurements from the Mount Wilson Observatory and comparable solar data. We show that solar three - component modeling explains well the stellar observations. We find that the 10 - 20% of K - stars disc’s surfaces are occupied by bright active regions.
Chronic effect of olive oil on some neurotransmitter contents in different brain regions and physiological, histological structure of liver and kidney of male albino rats  [PDF]
A. E. Bawazir
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2011.13005
Abstract: Olive oil is an important source of mono-unsaturated fat and a prime component of the Mediterranean diet. The beneficial health effects of olive oil are due to both its high content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and its high content of anti-oxidative substances. The objective of this study was to investigate the basis for the epidemiological information relating to the health benefits associated with the consumption of ex-tra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The effect of olive oil on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) con-tents in different brain regions and histological structure of liver and kindey of male albino rats was studied. The chronic administration of olive oil (7.5 mg/kg body wt.) caused a significant increase in norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) , serotonin (5-HT) and gamm-aminobutyric acid (GABA) con-tent in different brain regions (Cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, brain steam and hip-pocampus) of male albino rats. The increase in NE, DA, 5-HT, and GABA content in the different CNS areas of male albino rat may be due to the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin binding which plays an important role in the release of these neurotransmitters. The results, also, revealed that urea and creatinne con-centrations in rats with oral administration with olive oil were decreased. Meanwhile, the activities of the enzymes AsT, AlT and ALP were elevated. The pre-sent results indicated that there is no change in tis-sues of kidney after treated with virgin olive oil. Olive oil may potentially be safe for use as a sedative drug. improvement also led to the reductions in risk of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
Impact on Water Resources in a Mountainous Basin under the Climate Change Transient Scenario (UKTR)  [PDF]
E. A. Baltas
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.31010
Abstract:

The impact of climate change on the hydrological regime and water resources in the basin of Venetikos river, in Greece is assessed. A monthly conceptual water balance model was calibrated in this basin using historical hydro meteorological data. This calibrated model was used to estimate runoff under a transient scenario (UKTR) referring to year 2080. The results show that the mean annual runoff, mean winter and summer runoff values, annual maximum and minimum values, as well as, monthly maximum and minimum, will be reduced. Additionally, an increase of potential and actual evapotranspiration was noticed due to temperature increase.

Neural Network Based Normalized Fusion Approaches for Optimized Multimodal Biometric Authentication Algorithm  [PDF]
E. Sujatha, A. Chilambuchelvan
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78103
Abstract: A multimodal biometric system is applied to recognize individuals for authentication using neural networks. In this paper multimodal biometric algorithm is designed by integrating iris, finger vein, palm print and face biometric traits. Normalized score level fusion approach is applied and optimized, encoded for matching decision. It is a multilevel wavelet, phase based fusion algorithm. This robust multimodal biometric algorithm increases the security level, accuracy, reduces memory size and equal error rate and eliminates unimodal biometric algorithm vulnerabilities.
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