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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 562826 matches for " E. A Bergin "
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Tracing Embedded Stellar Populations in Clusters and Galaxies using Molecular Emission: Methanol as a Signature of the Low-Mass End of the IMF
L. E. Kristensen,E. A. Bergin
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/807/2/L25
Abstract: Most low-mass protostars form in clusters, in particular high-mass clusters; however, how low-mass stars form in high-mass clusters and what the mass distribution is, are still open questions both in our own Galaxy and elsewhere. To access the population of forming embedded low-mass protostars observationally, we propose to use molecular outflows as tracers. Because the outflow emission scales with mass, the effective contrast between low-mass protostars and their high-mass cousins is greatly lowered. In particular, maps of methanol emission at 338.4 GHz (J=7_0 - 6_0 A+) in low-mass clusters illustrate that this transition is an excellent probe of the low-mass population. We here present a model of a forming cluster where methanol emission is assigned to every embedded low-mass protostar. The resulting model image of methanol emission is compared to recent ALMA observations toward a high-mass cluster and the similarity is striking: the toy model reproduces observations to better than a factor of two and suggests that approximately 50\% of the total flux originates in low-mass outflows. Future fine-tuning of the model will eventually make it a tool for interpreting the embedded low-mass population of distant regions within our own Galaxy and ultimately higher-redshift starburst galaxies, not just for methanol emission but also water and high-J CO.
Chemical modeling of the L1498 and L1517B prestellar cores: CO and HCO+ depletion
S. Maret,E. A Bergin,M. Tafalla
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322089
Abstract: Prestellar cores exhibit a strong chemical differentiation, which is mainly caused by the freeze-out of molecules onto the grain surfaces. Understanding this chemical structure is important, because molecular lines are often used as probes to constrain the core physical properties. Here we present new observations and analysis of the C18O (1-0) and H13CO+ (1-0) line emission in the L1498 and L1517B prestellar cores, located in the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex. We model these observations with a detailed chemistry network coupled to a radiative transfer code. Our model successfully reproduces the observed C18O (1-0) emission for a chemical age of a few 10^5 years. On the other hand, the observed H13CO+ (1-0) is reproduced only if cosmic-ray desorption by secondary photons is included, and if the grains have grown to a bigger size than average ISM grains in the core interior. This grain growth is consistent with the infrared scattered light ("coreshine") detected in these two objects, and is found to increase the CO abundance in the core interior by about a factor four. According to our model, CO is depleted by about 2-3 orders of magnitude in the core center.
Beyond the pseudo-time-dependent approach: chemical models of dense core precursors
G. E. Hassel,E. Herbst,E. A. Bergin
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913896
Abstract: Context: Chemical models of dense cloud cores often utilize the so-called pseudo-time-dependent approximation, in which the physical conditions are held fixed and uniform as the chemistry occurs. In this approximation, the initial abundances chosen, which are totally atomic in nature except for molecular hydrogen, are artificial. A more detailed approach to the chemistry of dense cold cores should include the physical evolution during their early stages of formation. Aims: Our major goal is to investigate the initial synthesis of molecular ices and gas-phase molecules as cold molecular gas begins to form behind a shock in the diffuse interstellar medium. The abundances calculated as the conditions evolve can then be utilized as reasonable initial conditions for a theory of the chemistry of dense cores. Methods: Hydrodynamic shock-wave simulations of the early stages of cold core formation are used to determine the time-dependent physical conditions for a gas-grain chemical network. We follow the cold post-shock molecular evolution of ices and gas-phase molecules for a range of visual extinction up to AV ~ 3, which increases with time. At higher extinction, self-gravity becomes important. Results: As the newly condensed gas enters its cool post-shock phase, a large amount of CO is produced in the gas. As the CO forms, water ice is produced on grains, while accretion of CO produces CO ice. The production of CO2 ice from CO occurs via several surface mechanisms, while the production of CH4 ice is slowed by gas-phase conversion of C into CO.
Detection of Structure in Infrared-Dark Clouds with Spitzer: Characterizing Star Formation in the Molecular Ring
Sarah E. Ragan,Edwin A. Bergin,Robert A. Gutermuth
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/698/1/324
Abstract: We have conducted a survey of a sample of infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) with the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to explore their mass distribution. We present a method for tracing mass using dust absorption against the bright Galactic background at 8 microns. The IRDCs in this sample are comprised of tens of clumps, ranging in sizes from 0.02 to 0.3 pc in diameter and masses from 0.5 to a few 10 Msun, the broadest dynamic range in any clump mass spectrum study to date. Structure with this range in scales confirms that IRDCs are the the precursors to stellar clusters in an early phase of fragmentation. Young stars are distributed in the vicinity of the IRDCs, but the clumps are typically not associated with stars and appear pre-stellar in nature. We find an IRDC clump mass spectrum with a slope of 1.76 +/- 0.05 for masses from 30 to 3000 Msun. This slope is consistent with numerous studies, culled from a variety of observational techniques, of massive star formation regions and is close to the mass function of Galactic stellar clusters and star clusters in other galaxies. We assert that the shape of the mass function is an intrinsic and universal feature of massive star formation regions, that are the birth sites of stellar clusters. As these clouds evolve and their constituent clumps fragment, the mass spectrum will steepen and eventually assume the form of the core mass function that is observed locally.
Very Large Array Observations of Ammonia in Infrared-Dark Clouds II: Internal Kinematics
Sarah E. Ragan,Fabian Heitsch,Edwin A. Bergin,David Wilner
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/174
Abstract: Infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) are believed to be the birthplaces of rich clusters and thus contain the earliest phases of high-mass star formation. We use the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and Very Large Array (VLA) maps of ammonia (NH3) in six IRDCs to measure their column density and temperature structure (Paper 1), and here, we investigate the kinematic structure and energy content. We find that IRDCs overall display organized velocity fields, with only localized disruptions due to embedded star formation. The local effects seen in NH3 emission are not high velocity outflows but rather moderate (few km/s) increases in the line width that exhibit maxima near or coincident with the mid-infrared emission tracing protostars. These line width enhancements could be the result of infall or (hidden in NH3 emission) outflow. Not only is the kinetic energy content insufficient to support the IRDCs against collapse, but also the spatial energy distribution is inconsistent with a scenario of turbulent cloud support. We conclude that the velocity signatures of the IRDCs in our sample are due to active collapse and fragmentation, in some cases augmented by local feedback from stars.
Molecular Excitation and Differential Gas-Phase Depletions in the IC 5146 Dark Cloud
E. A. Bergin,D. R. Ciardi,C. J. Lada,J. Alves,E. A. Lada
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/321625
Abstract: We present a combined near-infrared and molecular-line study of 25' x 8' area in the Northern streamer of the IC 5146 cloud. Using the technique pioneered by Lada et al 1994, we construct a Gaussian smoothed map of the infrared extinction with the same resolution as the molecular line observations in order to examine correlations of integrated intensities and molecular abundances with extinction for C17O, C34S, and N2H+. We find that over a visual extinction range of 0 to 40 magnitudes, there is good evidence for the presence of differential gas-phase depletions in the densest portions of IC 5146. Both CO and CS exhibit a statistically significant (factor of ~3) abundance reduction near Av ~ 12 magnitudes while, in direct contrast, at the highest extinctions, Av > 10 magnitudes, N2H+ appears relatively undepleted. Moreover, for Av < 4 magnitudes there exists little or no N2H+. This pattern of depletions is consistent with the predictions of chemical theory.
Local anthropogenic impact on particulate elemental carbon concentrations at Summit, Greenland
G. S. W. Hagler, M. H. Bergin, E. A. Smith, M. Town,J. E. Dibb
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Summit, Greenland is a remote Arctic research station allowing for field measurements at the highest point of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Due to the current reliance on diesel generators for electricity at Summit, unavoidable local emissions are a potential contamination threat to the measurement of combustion-related species in the air and snow. The effect of fossil-fuel combustion on particulate elemental carbon (EC) is assessed by a combination of ambient measurements (~1 km from the main camp), a series of snow pits, and Gaussian plume modeling. Ambient measurements indicate that the air directly downwind of the research station generators experiences particulate absorption coefficient (closely related to EC) values that are up to a factor of 200 higher than the summer 2006 non-camp-impacted ambient average. Local anthropogenic influence on snow EC content is also evident. The average EC concentration in 1-m snow pits in the "clean air" sector of Summit Camp are a factor of 1.8–2.4 higher than in snow pits located 10 km and 20 km to the north ("downwind") and south ("upwind") of the research site. Gaussian plume modeling performed using meteorological data from years 2003–2006 suggests a strong angular dependence of anthropogenic impact, with highest risk to the northwest of Summit Camp and lowest to the southeast. Along a transect to the southeast (5 degree angle bin), the modeled frequency of significant camp contribution to atmospheric EC (i.e. camp-produced EC>summer 2006 average EC) at a distance of 0.5 km, 10 km, and 20 km is 1%, 0.2%, and 0.05%, respectively. According to both the snow pit and model results, a distance exceeding 10 km towards the southeast is expected to minimize risk of contamination. These results also suggest that other remote Arctic monitoring stations powered by local fuel combustion may need to account for local air and snow contamination in field sampling design and data interpretation.
Submillimeter Observations of the Quiescent Core - Ophiuchus A-N6
A. Pon,R. Plume,R. K. Friesen,J. Di Francesco,B. Matthews,E. A. Bergin
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/698/2/1914
Abstract: We have observed the Oph A-N6 prestellar core in the following transitions: N2D+ J=3 to 2, DCO+ J=3 to 2 and J=5 to 4, HCO+ J=3 to 2, CS J=5 to 4 and J=7 to 6, and H13CO+ J=3 to 2 and J=4 to 3, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We also observed the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions towards the Oph A-N6 peak with the Green Bank Telescope. We have found that the N6 core is composed of shells of different chemical composition due to the freezing out of chemical species at different densities. The undepleted species N2D+ appears to trace the high-density interior of the core, DCO+ and H13CO+ trace an intermediate region, and CS traces the outermost edges of the core. A distinct blue-red spectral asymmetry, indicative of infall motion, is clearly detected in the HCO+ spectra, suggesting that N6 is undergoing gravitational collapse. This collapse was possibly initiated by a decrease in turbulent support suggested by the fact that the non-thermal contribution to the line widths is smaller for the molecular species closer to the center of the core. We also present a temperature profile for the core. These observations support the claim that the Oph A-N6 core is an extremely young prestellar core, which may have been recently cut off from MHD support and begun to collapse.
Evaluating local anthropogenic impact on remote Arctic monitoring stations: a case study at Summit, Greenland
G. S. W. Hagler,M. H. Bergin,E. A. Smith,M. Town
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Summit, Greenland is a remote Arctic research station allowing for field measurements at the highest point of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Due to the current reliance on diesel generators for electricity at Summit, unavoidable local emissions are a potential contamination threat to the measurement of combustion-related species in the air and snow. The effect of fossil-fuel combustion on particulate elemental carbon (EC) is assessed by a combination of ambient measurements (~1 km from the main camp), a series of snow pits (up to 20 km from Summit Camp), and Gaussian plume modeling. Ambient measurements indicate that the air directly downwind of the research station generators experiences particulate absorption coefficient (closely related to EC) values that are up to a factor of 200 higher than the summer 2006 non-camp-impacted ambient average. Local anthropogenic influence on snow EC content is also evident. The average EC concentration in 1-m snow pits in the "clean air" sector of Summit Camp are a factor of 1.8–2.4 higher than in snow pits located 10 km and 20 km to the north ("downwind") and south ("upwind") of the research site. Gaussian plume modeling performed using meteorological data from years 2003–2006 suggests a strong angular dependence of anthropogenic impact, with highest risk to the northwest of Summit Camp and lowest to the southeast. Along a transect to the southeast (5 degree angle bin), the modeled frequency of significant camp contribution to atmospheric EC (i.e. camp-produced EC>2006 summer average EC) at a distance of 0.5 km, 10 km, and 20 km is 1%, 0.2%, and 0.05%, respectively. According to both the snow pit and model results, a distance exceeding 10 km towards the southeast is expected to minimize risk of contamination. These results also suggest that other remote Arctic monitoring stations powered by local fuel combustion may need to account for local air and snow contamination in field sampling design and data interpretation.
A Survey of 557 GHz Water Vapor Emission in the NGC 1333 Molecular Cloud
Edwin A. Bergin,Michael J. Kaufman,Gary J. Melnick,Ronald L. Snell,John E. Howe
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/344674
Abstract: Using NASA's Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) we have examined the production of water in quiescent and shocked molecular gas through a survey of the 556.936 GHz transition of ortho-H2O in the NGC 1333 molecular core. These observations reveal broad emission lines associated with the IRAS~2, IRAS~4, IRAS~7, and HH7-11 outflows. Towards 3 positions we detect narrow (~2-3 km/s) emission lines clearly associated with the ambient gas. The SWAS observations, with a resolution of 4', are supplemented with observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and by an unbiased survey of a 17' x 15' area, with 50" resolution, in the low-J transitions of CO, 13CO, C18O, N2H+, CH3OH, and SiO. Using these combined data sets, with consistent assumptions, we find beam-averaged o-H2O abundances of > 10^{-6} relative to H2O for all four outflows. A comparison of SWAS and ISO water data is consistent with non-dissociative shock models, provided the majority of the 557 GHz emission arises from cool post-shock material with enhanced abundances. In the ambient gas the o-H2O abundance is found to lie between 0.1-1 x 10^{-7} relative to H2 and is enhanced when compared to cold pre-stellar molecular cores. A comparison of the water emission with tracers of dense condensations and shock chemistry finds no clear correlation. However, the water emission appears to be associated with the presence of luminous external heating sources which power the reflection nebula and the photodissociation (PDR) region. Simple PDR models are capable of reproducing the water and high-J 13CO emission, suggesting that a PDR may account for the excitation of water in low density undepleted gas as suggested by Spaans & van Dishoeck (2001).
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