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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167949 matches for " E Nel "
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Diarrhoea and malnutrition
E.D Nel
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: The relationship between diarrhoea and malnutrition is bidirectional: diarrhoea leads to malnutrition while malnutrition aggravates the course of diarrhoea. Many factors contribute to the detrimental effect of diarrhoea on nutrition. Reduced intake (due to anorexia, vomiting, and withholding of feeds), maldigestion, malabsorption, increased nutrient losses, and the effects of the infl ammatory response are some of the factors involved. High volume stool losses (greater than 30 ml/kg/day) are associated with a negative balance for protein, fat, and sugar absorption. Enteric infections often cause increased loss of endogenous proteins, particularly after invasive bacterial infections. Initially, the major emphasis of treatment of acute diarrhoea in children is the prevention and treatment of dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities and comorbid conditions. The objectives of diarrhoeal disease management are to prevent weight loss, to encourage catch-up growth during recovery, to shorten the duration and to decrease the impact of the diarrhoea on the child’s health. Addressing only diarrhoea or only food security is unlikely to be successful in decreasing the prevalence of malnutrition. Existing evidence provides some guidelines as to the optimal nutritional management of children with diarrhoea and novel treatments may prove to be valuable in future.
Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress
Jesus A Araujo, Andre E Nel
Particle and Fibre Toxicology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-8977-6-24
Abstract: Extensive epidemiological evidence supports the association of air pollution with adverse health effects [1-3]. It is increasingly being recognized that such effects lead to enhanced morbidity and mortality, mostly due to exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases and predominantly those of ischemic character [4]. Indeed, in addition to the classical risk factors such as serum lipids, smoking, hypertension, aging, gender, family history, physical inactivity and diet, recent data have implicated air pollution as an important additional risk factor for atherosclerosis. This has been the subject of extensive reviews [5,6] and a consensus statement from the American Heart Association [7]. This article reviews the supporting epidemiological and animal data, possible pathogenic mechanisms and future perspectives.While air pollution is a complex mixture of compounds in gaseous (ozone, CO and nitrogen oxides) and particle phases [8], the strongest evidence among several hundred epidemiological studies linking air pollution with human health effects, centers around the particulate components [7-13]. Particulate matter (PM) is comprised of heterogenous compounds varying in size, number, chemical composition, surface area, concentration and source [7,8]. Some atmospheric particles are liquid, some are solid and others may contain a solid core surrounded by liquid. PM includes primary particles that are emitted directly from sources such as fossil-fuel combustion (e.g. diesel exhaust particles) and secondary particles that are generated from gases through chemical reactions involving atmospheric oxygen (O2), water vapor (H2O), reactive species such as ozone (O3), free radicals such as hydroxyl (.OH) and nitrate (.NO3) radicals, pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and organic gases from natural and anthropogenic sources [8].Particles are also classified according to their aerodynamic diameter into size fractions such as PM10 ("thoracic" particles, < 10 μ
Malls in Zambia: Racialised retail expansion and South African foreign investors in Zambia
D Miller, E Nel, G Hampwaye
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2008,
Abstract: No
The competencies of the shift leader in the intensive care unit setting, in a private hospital group in South Africa
E Nel, A Müller, A Colyn
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011,
Abstract: Newly qualified intensive care nurses are forced into positions of authority and responsibility as shift leaders at an early stage and are not given a chance to consolidate their new knowledge with practice. They have to be responsible and accountable not only for their own actions, but also for those of their staff. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the competencies of the shift leader in the intensive care unit setting to determine whether there is a gap between what is expected of the shift leader and what is happening in reality. A quantitative, descriptive design was used and cluster sampling was implemented. Questionnaires were used to gather data from three clusters, comprising 11 hospitals from a single private hospital group. Of the 251 questionnaires that were handed out to intensive care personnel (including trained and non-trained staff), 98 were returned, resulting in a response rate of 39%. An in-depth literature study and submission of questionnaires to experts before being administered to respondents ensured validity and reliability. Results were used to describe a typology of the competencies of the shift leader in the intensive care setting and indicated that respondents classified competencies related to the application of the nursing process in the intensive care unit in all its facets as essential competencies. None were classified as a critical competency and only four were classified as specific competencies. All respondents in the three clusters regarded their shift leaders as competent. Pas-gekwalifiseerde, intensiewesorg-verpleegkundiges word op ’n vroe stadium as skofleiers in posisies van gesag en verantwoordelikheid geplaas en word nie die kans gegun om hul nuwe kennis met die praktyk te konsolideer nie. Tog moet hulle verantwoordelikheid en aanspreeklikheid aanvaar nie net vir hul eie aksies nie, maar ook vir dié van hul personeel. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die vaardighede van skofleiers in die opset van die intensiewesorg-eenheid te ondersoek en te beskryf om te bepaal of daar ’n gaping bestaan tussen wat van hulle verwag word en wat in werklikheid gebeur. ’n Kwantitatiewe, beskrywende ontwerp is gebruik en ’n trossteekproef is ge mplementeer. Vraelyste is gebruik om data in te samel van drie trosse bestaande uit 11 hospitale van ’n enkele privaathospitaalgroep. Van die 251 vraelyste wat uitgedeel is aan intensiewesorg-personeel (insluitend opgeleide en nie-opgeleide personeel), is 98 terugontvang, wat vertaal na ’n responskoers van 39%. ’n Diepgaande literatuurstudie en voorlegging van vraelyste aan deskundiges voordat dit aan respondente uitgedeel is, het bygedra tot geldigheid en betroubaarheid. Resultate is gebruik om ’n tipologie van die vaardighede van skofleiers in ’n intensiewesorg-eenheid te beskryf en dit het geblyk dat respondente die vaardighede wat verband hou met die verpleegproses in die intensiewesorg-eenheid in al sy fasette as noodsaaklike vaardighede klassifiseer. Gee
Post-operative ventilatory nursing regime of research coronary artery bypass graft patients
H Potgieter,H Uys,W E Nel
Health SA Gesondheid , 1999, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v4i4.382
Abstract: The nurse working in the intensive care unit functions as an independent practitioner under the Nursing Act and arising SANC regulations. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om die invloed van 'n pre-operatiewe bloedgasanalise op die post-operatiewe ventilatoriese verplegingsregime van 'n koronere vatomleidingspasient te bepaal. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Transport of energetic electrons through the solar corona and the interplanetary space
H. ?nel,G. Mann,E. Sedlmayr
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: During solar flares fast electron beams generated in the solar corona are non-thermal radio sources in terms of type III bursts. Sometimes they can enter into the interplanetary space, where they can be observed by in-situ measurements as it is done e.g. by the WIND spacecraft. On the other hand, they can be the source of non-thermal X-ray radiation as e.g. observed by RHESSI, if they precipitate toward the dense chromosphere due to bremsstrahlung. Since these energetic electrons are generated in the corona and observed at another site, the study of transport of such electrons in the corona and interplanetary space is of special interest. The transport of electrons is influenced by the global magnetic and electric field as well as local Coulomb collisions with the particles in the background plasma.
Exploring the needs and resources of children in a haematology-oncology unit
AE Oberholzer, E Nel, CPH Myburgh, M Poggenpoel
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011,
Abstract: Too often a child’s body is restored to health in the hospital, but the child is sent home with emotional wounds. This study explored the needs of children in a haematology-oncology unit as well as the resources that could be mobilised in order to address these needs by firstly carrying out a literature review. A field study was then conducted in order to prioritise the resources according to their importance for children in a haematology-oncology unit. A definite trend could be found in the way that the children responded to the request to prioritise the resources. The first three resources, as chosen by the children, all concerned the external social environment of the child. It could therefore be concluded that support from parents and other people of significance are most important to the child and should be taken into account when facilitating support for children in a haematology-oncology unit. It could also be concluded that these children do not experience sufficient control in their situation and it could therefore be suggested that children in a haematology-oncology unit should experience more control and power in their situation. So dikwels word ‘n kind se liggaam genees in die hospitaal, maar hierdie selfde kind gaan huis toe met emosionele wonde. Die behoeftes van kinders in ‘n hematologie-onkologie eenheid is ondersoek asook die hulpbronne wat gemobiliseer kan word om hierdie behoeftes aan te spreek deur gebruik te maak van ‘n literatuurstudie. Daarna is ‘n veldstudie gedoen om hierdie hulpbronne te prioritiseer volgens die belangrikheid daarvan vir kinders in ‘n hematologieonkologie eenheid. Die manier waarop die kinders die hulpbronne geprioritiseer het, het ‘n definitiewe tendens getoon. Die eerste drie hulpbronne wat deur die kinders gekies is, is al drie hulpbronne wat die eksterne sosiale omgewing van die kind behels. Die gevolgtrekking kan dus gemaak word dat die ondersteuning van ouers en ander persone wat belangrik is vir die kind, van uiterste belang is en in aanmerking geneem behoort te word in die fasilitering van ondersteuning van kinders in ‘n hematologie-onkologie eenheid. Die gevolgtrekking wat gemaak kan word is dat hierdie kinders nie genoeg beheer ervaar in hulle situasie nie en daarom word voorgestel dat kinders in ‘n hematologie-onkologie eenheid meer bemagtig behoort te word gegewe hulle omstandighede.
The extent and practice of inclusion in independent schools in South Africa
E Walton, N Nel, H Hugo, H Muller
South African Journal of Education , 2009,
Abstract: In line with international trends in education, South Africa has embraced inclusive education as the means by which learners who experience barriers to learning will be educated. As inclusion is beginning to be realised in South African schools, a gap in the emerging research base on inclusive education is that of inclusion in the independent sector. A study was undertaken to establish the extent to which learners who experience barriers to learning are included in independent schools belonging to ISASA (the largest independent schools association in South Africa) and the practices that facilitate inclusion. The results of a survey administered to principals were analysed quantitatively and reveal that most ISASA schools include learners who experience various barriers to learning and employ inclusive practices that are described in the international literature. We report on salient aspects emerging from the study and focus on the diversity of learners found in ISASA schools, as well as the inclusive practices found at school-wide, classroom, and individual levels. The practices described are the provision of on-site specialist personnel, support for teachers, building modifications to ensure access by persons using wheelchairs and various instructional practices and assessment adaptations. Recommendations arising from the study may give direction to South African schools pursuing inclusivity. South African Journal of Education Vol. 29 (1) 2009: pp. 105-126
Good short-term outcome of kangaroo mother care in low birth weight infants in a rural South African hospital
A N Rodriguez, M Nel, H Dippenaar, E A Prinsloo
South African Family Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the outcome of kangaroo mother care (KMC) in low birth weight infants at a community hospital. Methods: This descriptive study included 87 mothers and their low birth weight infants who were in a stable condition and eligible for KMC at Dr JS Moroka Hospital, Thaba Nchu. The infants were assessed four times: at birth, twice during hospitalisation, and a week after discharge. Infants received breast milk exclusively. Results: Regarding the mothers' obstetric history (n=87), gravidity ranged from 1 to 7 (median 3), with a 43% incidence of miscarriage. The median birth weight of the infants (n=87) was 1.5 kg (first assessment), the discharge weight (third assessment) was 1.8 kg, and a week after discharge (fourth assessment) it was 2.2 kg. Initially the infants lost weight significantly from birth to the second assessment (95% CI for median decrease [-0.02; -0.01]), but significantly gained weight from the second to the third (95% CI for median decrease [0.27; 0.33]) and from the third to the fourth assessment (95% CI for median decrease [0.32; 0.45]). Approximately half (49%) of the infants had developed jaundice by the time of second assessment. These babies had a significantly lower birth weight [0.12;0.30]. Conclusion: Our findings confirm that infants with a low birth weight treated with KMC can have a good growth pattern, and exclusive breast milk is sufficient to guarantee such growth. Kangaroo mother care is a safe method for stable infants with a low birth weight in a community hospital. South African Family Practice Vol. 49 (5) 2007: pp. 15
Problems related to cytomegalovirus infection and biliary atresia
C Zabiegaj-Zwick, E Nel, SW Moore
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is related to biliary disease, being cholestatic in its own right. It has also been associated with intrahepatic bile duct destruction and duct paucity, indicating a possible role in the pathogenesis and progression of extrahepatic biliary atresia (BA). BA patients who are CMVIgM-positive appear to have greater liver damage than uninfected patients, consequently affecting outcome. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of 74 patients diagnosed with hepatobiliary disease between 2000 and 2011, assessing clinical outcome and potential risk factors. Patients, categorised into those with and those without BA, were compared in terms of CMV infection. Results. The 74 patients included 39 (52%) BA and 35 non-BA patients; following the exclusion of patients due to insufficient data, 27 (69%) BA and 31 non-BA patients were reviewed. Twenty-one (78%) BA patients were CMV-positive (IgM/IgG), including 20 IgM-positive patients versus 8 in the non-BA group (p<0.01). Two (7.5%) CMV-IgM-positive BA infants were HIV-exposed versus 7 (35%) in the non-BA group (p<0.01). Long-term outcomes included 3 deaths in the non-HIV CMV-positive group and a higher rate of severe early liver damage, suggesting a poorer outcome in CMVaffected patients. Conclusions. Our results suggest a correlation between CMV exposure/infection and BA which affects clinical outcome. HIV positivity does not preclude BA and should be investigated further.
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