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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167622 matches for " E Monjok "
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HIV/AIDS - Related Stigma and Discrimination in Nigeria: Review of Research Studies and future directions for Prevention Strategies
E Monjok, A Smesny, EJ Essien
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2009,
Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS remain a major public health crisis in Nigeria which harbors more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India. A significant challenge to the success of achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010 is HIV-AIDS stigma and discrimination. Eight studies looking at some degree of measurement of stigma and discrimination in Nigeria were reviewed in an attempt to investigate the cultural context of stigma, health seeking behavior and the role both perceived and community stigma play in HIV prevention. Results suggest that reducing stigma does increase the individual as well as community acceptance of people living with HIV-AIDS (PLWHAs), but long term studies are needed. Some suggestions are recommended for future research on culture specific stigma studies in Nigeria (Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13[3]:21-35).
The Specialty of General Medical Practice/family Medicine: The need for Development in Nigeria
E Monjok, A Smesny, E.J Essien
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2010,
Abstract: No
Predictors of frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria
E James Essien, Osaro Mgbere, Emmanuel Monjok, et al
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S9415
Abstract: edictors of frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria Original Research (6078) Total Article Views Authors: E James Essien, Osaro Mgbere, Emmanuel Monjok, et al Published Date April 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 77 - 88 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S9415 E James Essien1, Osaro Mgbere2, Emmanuel Monjok1, Ernest Ekong3, Susan Abughosh1, Marcia M Holstad4 1Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, TX, USA; 3Institute for Health Research and Development, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Nell Hodgson School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Background: Despite awareness of condom efficacy, in protecting against both human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/STDs) and unintended pregnancy; some females find it difficult to use or permit condom use consistently because of the power imbalances or other dynamics operating in their relationships with males. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that predict the frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design in which a total of 346 responses were obtained from consenting female military personnel in two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria between 2006 and 2008. The study instrument was designed to assess HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge (HAK), HIV risk behaviors (HRB), alcohol and drug use, condom attitudes and barriers (CAS) condom use self-efficacy (CUS) and social support to condom use (SSC). The sociodemographic characteristics of participants were also captured. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used for modeling the predictors of condom use. Results: The results showed that 63% of the respondents reported using condoms always, 26% sometimes used condoms and 11% never used condoms during a sexual encounter in the past three months. Univariate analysis revealed that significant associations existed between CAB (P < 0.05), HRB (P < 0.01) and SSC (P < 0.01) with the frequency of condom use. The following sociodemographic variables: age, marital status, number of children, employment status and type of sexual relationship were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with consistent condom use in the study group. Multivariate analysis indicated that marital status, type of relationship and CAB were the only significant predictors (r2 = 0.37; P ≤ 0.05) of condom use behaviors after adjusting for all other factors in the model. Conclusions: Findings indicate that consistent condom use could be enhanced through gender-specific intervention programs that incorporate the predictor variables identified. These are likely to be successful in decreasing sexual risk behaviors in the subpopulation.
Contraceptive practices in Nigeria: Literature review and recommendation for future policy decisions
Emmanuel Monjok, Andrea Smesny, John E Ekabua, et al
Open Access Journal of Contraception (OAJC) , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S9281
Abstract: ntraceptive practices in Nigeria: Literature review and recommendation for future policy decisions Review (21750) Total Article Views Authors: Emmanuel Monjok, Andrea Smesny, John E Ekabua, et al Published Date May 2010 Volume 2010:1 Pages 9 - 22 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S9281 Emmanuel Monjok1, Andrea Smesny1, John E Ekabua2, E James Essien1 1Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Calabar, Nigeria Abstract: The current prevalence rate for contraceptive use in Nigeria is approximately 11%–13%. This rate is very low in spite of the high rate of sexual activity and widespread awareness of the various contraceptive methods among Nigerian adolescence and youths. As a result there are many unintended pregnancies and illegal abortions contributing to a high maternal mortality ratio, which seems to indicate a large unmet need for contraceptive use. There is ample research evidence identifying the various factors that contribute to the low prevalence of modern contraceptive use in Nigeria, with the most common factor being the myth about the side effects of modern contraceptives. However, what is lacking is a political will in Nigeria to provide family planning programs on a much larger scale, using community-oriented approaches and communication programs, to help change the myth about the side effects of modern contraceptives. This review highlights current methods and concepts in contraception, reasons for low contraceptive use and practice in Nigeria, and the need for Nigeria to generate a political priority and a will to make a change in maternal health indicators, with the ultimate goal of providing direction to guide changes in the Nigerian Population Policy as it affects contraceptive use and family planning.
Predictors of frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria
E James Essien,Osaro Mgbere,Emmanuel Monjok,et al
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2010,
Abstract: E James Essien1, Osaro Mgbere2, Emmanuel Monjok1, Ernest Ekong3, Susan Abughosh1, Marcia M Holstad41Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, TX, USA; 3Institute for Health Research and Development, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Nell Hodgson School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USABackground: Despite awareness of condom efficacy, in protecting against both human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/STDs) and unintended pregnancy; some females find it difficult to use or permit condom use consistently because of the power imbalances or other dynamics operating in their relationships with males. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that predict the frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria.Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design in which a total of 346 responses were obtained from consenting female military personnel in two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria between 2006 and 2008. The study instrument was designed to assess HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge (HAK), HIV risk behaviors (HRB), alcohol and drug use, condom attitudes and barriers (CAS) condom use self-efficacy (CUS) and social support to condom use (SSC). The sociodemographic characteristics of participants were also captured. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used for modeling the predictors of condom use.Results: The results showed that 63% of the respondents reported using condoms always, 26% sometimes used condoms and 11% never used condoms during a sexual encounter in the past three months. Univariate analysis revealed that significant associations existed between CAB (P < 0.05), HRB (P < 0.01) and SSC (P < 0.01) with the frequency of condom use. The following sociodemographic variables: age, marital status, number of children, employment status and type of sexual relationship were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with consistent condom use in the study group. Multivariate analysis indicated that marital status, type of relationship and CAB were the only significant predictors (r2 = 0.37; P ≤ 0.05) of condom use behaviors after adjusting for all other factors in the model.Conclusions: Findings indicate that consistent condom use could be enhanced through gender-specific intervention programs that incorporate the predictor variables identified. These are likely to be successful in decreasing sexual risk behaviors i
Contraceptive practices in Nigeria: Literature review and recommendation for future policy decisions
Emmanuel Monjok,Andrea Smesny,John E Ekabua,et al
Open Access Journal of Contraception (OAJC) , 2010,
Abstract: Emmanuel Monjok1, Andrea Smesny1, John E Ekabua2, E James Essien11Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Calabar, NigeriaAbstract: The current prevalence rate for contraceptive use in Nigeria is approximately 11%–13%. This rate is very low in spite of the high rate of sexual activity and widespread awareness of the various contraceptive methods among Nigerian adolescence and youths. As a result there are many unintended pregnancies and illegal abortions contributing to a high maternal mortality ratio, which seems to indicate a large unmet need for contraceptive use. There is ample research evidence identifying the various factors that contribute to the low prevalence of modern contraceptive use in Nigeria, with the most common factor being the myth about the side effects of modern contraceptives. However, what is lacking is a political will in Nigeria to provide family planning programs on a much larger scale, using community-oriented approaches and communication programs, to help change the myth about the side effects of modern contraceptives. This review highlights current methods and concepts in contraception, reasons for low contraceptive use and practice in Nigeria, and the need for Nigeria to generate a political priority and a will to make a change in maternal health indicators, with the ultimate goal of providing direction to guide changes in the Nigerian Population Policy as it affects contraceptive use and family planning.Keywords: contraceptive practice, literature review, research, Nigeria
Obstructed Labour in Resource-poor Settings: The Need for Revival of Symphysiotomy in Nigeria
Emmanuel Monjok, Ita B Okokon, Margaret M Opiah, Justin A Ingwu, John E Ekabua, Ekere J Essien
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2012,
Abstract: Symphysiotomy is an operation in which the fibres of the pubic symphysis are partially divided to allow separation of the joint and thus enlargement of the pelvic dimensions thereby facilitating vaginal delivery of the foetus in the presence of mild to moderate cephalopelvic disproportion. It is performed with local anaesthesia, does not require an operating theatre or advanced surgical skills. It can be a lifesaving procedure for both mother and baby in obstructed labour, especially in rural areas and resource-poor settings of developing countries, where a 24 hours availability of a caesarean section cannot be guaranteed. It is a simple underused technology that can be performed by a graduate doctor or midwife in rural health facilities and hospitals where most of the times, in Nigeria, there are no practicing specialist obstetricians. In rural hospital and in communities where sympysiotomy is still being performed, it is evident that it is preferred to caesarean section because of the socio-cultural desire to achieve a vaginal delivery. This paper highlights our experiences with symphysiotomy in a rural Roman Catholic hospital providing evidence on the safety of symphysiotomy and the need for its revival and reinstatement in the obstetric arsenal in Nigeria and similar countries in sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality as a result of prolonged and neglected obstructed labour still occur (Afr J Reprod Health 2012; 16[3]: 93-100).
Mobile surgical services in primary care in a rural and remote setting: Experience and evidence from Yala, Cross River State, Nigeria
Emmanuel Monjok,Ekere J. Essien
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.31
Abstract: Surgical conditions account for 11 to 15% of the global burden of disease. Yet, surgical services are very scarce in the rural areas of Nigeria where approximately 60 to 80% of the population resides. Among other basic contributing factors is the shortage of surgical workforce, since Nigeria’s few surgeons practise in the urban centre of the major cities. One way to respond to this acute shortage of surgeons is the training of generalist medical doctors to undertake surgery in rural areas. The introduction of mobile surgical services in rural populations as part of the existing primary health care activities in the Local Government Areas (districts) can reduce surgical morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. This can be done by the generalist physician with training and experience in surgery using local health staff and simple surgical equipment. A number of recommendations are made. How to cite this article: Monjok E, Essien EJ. Mobile surgical services in primary care in a rural and remote setting: Experience and evidence from Yala, Cross River State, Nigeria. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2009;1(1), Art. #31, 4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.31
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria: an overview of research studies and implications for policy and practice
Emmanuel Monjok, Andrea Smesny, Ita B Okokon, et al
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S9280
Abstract: dherence to antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria: an overview of research studies and implications for policy and practice Review (6551) Total Article Views Authors: Emmanuel Monjok, Andrea Smesny, Ita B Okokon, et al Published Date March 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 69 - 76 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S9280 Emmanuel Monjok1, Andrea Smesny1, Ita B Okokon2, Osaro Mgbere3, E James Essien1 1Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston Texas 77030, USA; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Bureau of Epidemiology, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, Texas 77054, USA Abstract: Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS remain major public health crises in Nigeria, a country which harbors more people living with HIV/AIDS than any country in the world, with the exception of South Africa and India. In response to the HIV pandemic, global and international health initiatives have targeted several countries, including Nigeria, for the expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs for the increasing number of affected patients. The success of these expanded ART initiatives depends on the treated individual’s continual adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Thirteen peer-reviewed studies concerning adherence to ART in Nigeria were reviewed with very few pediatric and adolescent studies being found. Methodologies of adherence measurement were analyzed and reasons for nonadherence were identified in the geopolitical zones in the federal republic of Nigeria. The results of the literature review indicate that adherence to ART is mixed (both high and low adherence) with patient self-recall identified as the common method of assessment. The most common reasons identified for patient nonadherence include the cost of therapy (even when the drugs are heavily subsidized), medication side effects, nonavailability of ARV drugs, and the stigma of taking the drugs. This manuscript highlights the policy and practice implications from these studies and provides recommendations for future ART program management.
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria: an overview of research studies and implications for policy and practice
Emmanuel Monjok,Andrea Smesny,Ita B Okokon,et al
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2010,
Abstract: Emmanuel Monjok1, Andrea Smesny1, Ita B Okokon2, Osaro Mgbere3, E James Essien11Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston Texas 77030, USA; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Bureau of Epidemiology, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, Texas 77054, USAAbstract: Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS remain major public health crises in Nigeria, a country which harbors more people living with HIV/AIDS than any country in the world, with the exception of South Africa and India. In response to the HIV pandemic, global and international health initiatives have targeted several countries, including Nigeria, for the expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs for the increasing number of affected patients. The success of these expanded ART initiatives depends on the treated individual’s continual adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Thirteen peer-reviewed studies concerning adherence to ART in Nigeria were reviewed with very few pediatric and adolescent studies being found. Methodologies of adherence measurement were analyzed and reasons for nonadherence were identified in the geopolitical zones in the federal republic of Nigeria. The results of the literature review indicate that adherence to ART is mixed (both high and low adherence) with patient self-recall identified as the common method of assessment. The most common reasons identified for patient nonadherence include the cost of therapy (even when the drugs are heavily subsidized), medication side effects, nonavailability of ARV drugs, and the stigma of taking the drugs. This manuscript highlights the policy and practice implications from these studies and provides recommendations for future ART program management.Keywords: adherence, antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV, PLWHA, Nigeria
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