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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 206 matches for " Dyslexia "
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The Role of Phonology and Morphology in the Development of Basic Reading Skills of Dyslexic and Normal Native Arabic Readers  [PDF]
Salim Abu-Rabia, Nariman Abu-Rahmoun
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.37185
Abstract: This study is an investigation of the role of some basic reading skills of dyslexic (n = 27) and normal readers of Arabic: A reading-age-matched group (n = 29) and a chronological age-matched group (n = 31). The children were tested on reading and cognitive measures, all of which had vowelized and unvowelized versions: phonological, orthographic, reading, spelling, syntax, and working memory skills. The results of the MANOVA revealed significant differences between the dyslexic readers and the two control groups on most measures. Moreover, main effects of vowels and roots were found. In other words, subjects were much better at the vowelized than the unvowelized tests and used morphology to assist their reading accuracy. However, the Stepwise Regression analysis revealed that syntax, reading measures (isolated words, real roots and false roots), morphology and spelling were the most powerful predictors of reading accuracy among dyslexic and normal readers.
A Better Look at Learning: How Does the Brain Express the Mind?  [PDF]
Frederic Perez-Alvarez, Alexandra Perez-Serra, Carme Timoneda-Gallart
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.410108

Learning problems in the light of PASS assessment and intervention were studied. Data for 248 subjects with specific learning impairment (SLI), dyslexia, dyscalculia, and non-defined learning difficulty were studied. Hierarchical cluster analysis of PASS scores at baseline was performed. PASS re-assessment was carried out at 6 and 12 months after 6-month period of intervention. Four statistically different cluster groups were identified. All groups, except one, showed cognitive weakness. Planning weakness, associated with other weakness, appears involved in all groups except two where isolated planning and successive weaknesses were identified, respectively. SLI, dyslexia, and dyscalculia are not homogenous entities. A kind of dyslexia is clearly linked to isolated successive weakness. SLI-expressive (SLIe) and a minority of both dyslexia and dyscalculia appear linked to successive weakness although associated with planning and additionally with attention in the case of SLIe. SLI-expressive-receptive (SLIe-r) and Dyscalculia appear linked to simultaneous weakness, although associated with planning weakness. Other kind of SLIe-r appears linked to isolated planning weakness. Other types of SLIe-r and Dyscalculia appear liked to combined planning + successive + attention weakness. Isolated dysfunctional attention does not appear in any case. After 6 months of intervention, planning improves statistically in all cases. Attention improves in few cases. Successive and simultaneous do not improve. The best result is in dyslexia, SLIe and a minority of Dyscalculia. The worst result is in those without cognitive deficiency. The effect of intervention at 6 months remains with minor changes at 12 months after 6 months without intervention.

Attentional and Executive Deficits in Brazilian Children with Developmental Dyslexia  [PDF]
Ricardo Franco de Lima, Cíntia Alves Salgado Azoni, Sylvia Maria Ciasca
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.410A001

The present study aims to compare the performance between Brazilian children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD) and children without learning difficulties on tests of attention and Executive Functions. The study sample consists of study group (20 subjects) attending the Learning Disability clinic of Univesity Hospital and control group (20 subjects) from public school in Campinas-SP. The instruments utilized were: WISC-III factor indexes and subtests, cancellation test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color Word Test, Tower of London, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and verbal fluency test. The results revealed differences between groups in scores of different instruments. The findings suggest that children with dyslexia have difficulties in performing visuospatial and auditive attention tasks, as well as tasks involving different components of executive functions, such as flexibility, inhibitory control, strategy use, working memory and verbal fluency. Such changes may be part of dyslexia and accompany the core deficit in the phonological component of language.

Morphological Awareness in Brazilian Learners with Developmental Dyslexia  [PDF]
Sandra Regina Kirchner Guimar?es, Josafá Moreira da Cunha, Giovanna Beatriz Kalva Medina, Ana Maria Gomes Campos
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.611113
Abstract: There is consistent empirical support that demonstrates the relationship between phonological deficits of developmental dyslexics and their reading difficulties. However, the morphological skills—which also play an important role in the development of alphabetic writing—are seldom investigated among children and adolescents with dyslexia. The focus of this study was to analyse reading patterns according to the dual route model and verify the performance of each subtype of dyslexic in tests of morphological awareness. Participants were nine students classified as surface or phonological dyslexics through their performance in an isolated words-reading task. Four tests were applied to the participants to assess their knowledge of derivational morphology, and two tests focused on their knowledge of inflectional morphology. The hypothesis that guided this research was that students with different reading patterns would also present different performances on morphological tests. This hypothesis was confirmed only for derivational morphology, in which a higher performance was observed among participants with phonological dyslexia. It is concluded that metamorphological skills may serve as facilitators of reading in students with developmental dyslexia, and a focus on the development of these skills is suggested as a strategy to promote the reading skills of these students.
Lay Knowledge of Dyslexia  [PDF]
Adrian Furnham
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.412136

This study looks at the extent to which lay people believe many myths associated with dyslexia. It examined attitudes and beliefs about the causes, manifestations and treatments for dyslexia in a British population sample. A community sample of 380 participants (158 Male; 212 Female) completed a 62-item questionnaire on their attitudes to, and beliefs about, dyslexia. The statements were derived from various “dyslexia facts and myths” websites set up to help people understand dyslexia; academic research papers; and in-depth exploratory interviews with non-specialist people regarding their understanding of dyslexia. Item analysis showed participants were poorly informed about many aspects of dyslexia. Factor analysis returned a structure of latent attitudes in five factors (Characteristics, Biological and Social Causes, Treatment and Prevention). Regression analysis revealed that participant political orientation and education (formal and informal acquaintances with dyslexia sufferers) were the best predictors of attitudes concerning the behavioural manifestations, aetiology and treatments of dyslexia. Limitations and implications of this research were considered.

Visual, Auditory and Cross Modal Lexical Decision: A Comparison between Dyslexic and Typical Readers  [PDF]
Shelley Shaul
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.516191
Abstract: This study examined the differences in processing between typical and dyslexic readers in a lexical decision task in different modalities (visual, auditory, and cross modality). In general, dyslexics exhibited slower reaction times and made more mistakes when performing the task. The biggest gap between the two groups of readers was found on the visual task. However, the dyslexics benefited from the cross modality presentation, with differences between the two groups minimized. The results of this study indicate that the slowness characteristic of dyslexics’ stems mainly from slow processing of visual linguistic information and that supporting both processing systems relevant to reading will assist inter-sensory integration and may ease the word decoding process among dyslexics.
Executive Functioning in Every Day Life in Ecuatorian Adolescents with Developmental Dyslexia  [PDF]
Manuel Soriano-Ferrer, Elisa Piedra-Martínez, Magali Arteaga
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.95066
Abstract: Introduction: Deficits in executive functions (EF) have been well documented using tests of neuropsychological performance in children and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. However, the behavioral assessment of EFs in dyslexia is very scarce. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the EF of adolescents with dyslexia, in comparison with adolescents with typical development. We used the BRIEF-A Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function in Adults (BRIEF-A). Method: 19 adolescents with dyslexia and 20 adolescents with normal development, participated, matched in age, sex and IQ. Parents and adolescents themselves completed the BRIEF-A. Results: The results show that both parents and adolescents with dyslexia consider that they have more problems of EF in daily life, especially in metacognitive processes (initiation, WM, planning, supervision of tasks and planning-organization). In addition, parents reported a lower severity of EF deficiencies than adolescents themselves when detecting a lower percentage of scores above the clinical cut-off point. Conclusions: Adolescents and their parents do not always agree in FE assessments. Consequently, information from both informants is essential to understand and treat children with developmental dyslexia. The results coincide with the FE deficits found with neuropsychological tests.
Comparative study of the neuropsychological and neuroimaging evaluations in children with dyslexia
Arduini, Rodrigo Genaro;Capellini, Simone Aparecida;Ciasca, Sylvia Maria;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2006000300004
Abstract: we analyzed retrospectively the neuroimaging exams of children with a confirmed diagnosis of dyslexia and correlated our findings with the evaluation of higher cortical functions. we studied 34 medical files of patients of the ambulatory of neuro-difficulties in learning, fcm/unicamp. all of them had been sent to the ambulatory with primary or secondary complaints of difficulties at school and were submitted to neuropsychological evaluation and imaging exam (spect). from the children evaluated 58.8% had exams presenting dysfunction with 47% presenting hypoperfusion in the temporal lobe. as for the higher cortical functions, the most affected abilities were reading, writing and memory. there was significance between the hypoperfused areas and the variables schooling, reading, writing, memory and mathematic reasoning. the spects showed hypoperfusion in areas involved in the reading and writing processes. both are equivalent in terms of involved functional areas and are similar in children with or without specific dysfunctions in neuroimaging.
A desconstru??o do conceito de dislexia: conflito entre verdades
Massi, Giselle;Santana, Ana Paula de Oliveira;
Paidéia (Ribeir?o Preto) , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-863X2011000300013
Abstract: this paper discusses the deconstruction of the concept of dyslexia, constructed around two axes: the health sciences, which present organic factors as causes of dyslexia (brain functioning, genetic factors, cognitive difficulties) and human sciences, which link causes to social factors (literacy, singularities, educational factors) whose implications result in children’s difficulties. there is, in one of the axes, the construction of pathology, and in the other, its deconstruction through concepts such as diversity, and social and cultural differences. this discussion is relevant because professionals working in these fields become either “accomplices” or “critics” of one of these interpretations of reality.
Eficácia do programa de remedia??o auditivo-visual computadorizado em escolares com dislexia
Germano, Giseli Donadon;Capellini, Simone Aparecida;
Pró-Fono Revista de Atualiza??o Científica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-56872008000400006
Abstract: background: an audio-visual computerized remediation program in students with developmental dyslexia. aim: to verify the efficacy of an audio-visual computerized remediation program in students with developmental dyslexia. the specific goals of this study involved the comparison of the linguistic-cognitive performance of students with developmental dyslexia with that of students considered good readers; to compare the results obtained in pre and post-testing situations of students with dyslexia who were and were not submitted to the program; and to compare the results obtained with the remediation program in students with developmental dyslexia to those obtained in good readers. methods: the participants of this study were 20 students who were divided as follows: group i (gi) subdivided in: gie (five students with developmental dyslexia who were submitted to the program) and gic (five students with developmental dyslexia who were not submitted to the program); group ii (gii) was subdivided in: giie (five good readers who were submitted to the program) and giic (five good readers who were not submitted to the program). an audio-visual computerized remediation program was used - "play on". results: results indicate that gi presented a lower performance in auditory processing and phonological awareness when compared to gii in the pre-testing situation. however, gie presented a similar performance to that of gii in the post-testing situation, indicating the effectiveness of the audio-visual remediation program in students with developmental dyslexia. conclusion: this study made evident the effectiveness of an audio-visual remediation program in students with developmental dyslexia.
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