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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 199095 matches for " Durrheim Dave N. "
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Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa
Booman Marlize,Durrheim Dave N.,La Grange Kobus,Martin Carrin
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Sustainable control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is jeopardized by dwindling public health resources resulting from competing health priorities that include an overwhelming acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. In Mpumalanga province, South Africa, rational planning has historically been hampered by a case surveillance system for malaria that only provided estimates of risk at the magisterial district level (a subdivision of a province). METHODS: To better map control programme activities to their geographical location, the malaria notification system was overhauled and a geographical information system implemented. The introduction of a simplified notification form used only for malaria and a carefully monitored notification system provided the good quality data necessary to support an effective geographical information system. RESULTS: The geographical information system displays data on malaria cases at a village or town level and has proved valuable in stratifying malaria risk within those magisterial districts at highest risk, Barberton and Nkomazi. The conspicuous west-to-east gradient, in which the risk rises sharply towards the Mozambican border (relative risk = 4.12, 95% confidence interval = 3.88-4.46 when the malaria risk within 5 km of the border was compared with the remaining areas in these two districts), allowed development of a targeted approach to control. DISCUSSION: The geographical information system for malaria was enormously valuable in enabling malaria risk at town and village level to be shown. Matching malaria control measures to specific strata of endemic malaria has provided the opportunity for more efficient malaria control in Mpumalanga province.
Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa
Booman,Marlize; Durrheim,Dave N.; La Grange,Kobus; Martin,Carrin; Mabuza,Aaron M.; Zitha,Alpheus; Mbokazi,Frans M.; Fraser,Colleen; Sharp,Brian L.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000001200010
Abstract: introduction: sustainable control of malaria in sub-saharan africa is jeopardized by dwindling public health resources resulting from competing health priorities that include an overwhelming acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) epidemic. in mpumalanga province, south africa, rational planning has historically been hampered by a case surveillance system for malaria that only provided estimates of risk at the magisterial district level (a subdivision of a province). methods: to better map control programme activities to their geographical location, the malaria notification system was overhauled and a geographical information system implemented. the introduction of a simplified notification form used only for malaria and a carefully monitored notification system provided the good quality data necessary to support an effective geographical information system. results: the geographical information system displays data on malaria cases at a village or town level and has proved valuable in stratifying malaria risk within those magisterial districts at highest risk, barberton and nkomazi. the conspicuous west-to-east gradient, in which the risk rises sharply towards the mozambican border (relative risk = 4.12, 95% confidence interval = 3.88-4.46 when the malaria risk within 5 km of the border was compared with the remaining areas in these two districts), allowed development of a targeted approach to control. discussion: the geographical information system for malaria was enormously valuable in enabling malaria risk at town and village level to be shown. matching malaria control measures to specific strata of endemic malaria has provided the opportunity for more efficient malaria control in mpumalanga province.
Studies on interacting Blends of Acrylated Epoxy resin based Poly(Ester-Amide)s and Vinyl EsterResin  [PDF]
Pragnesh N. Dave, Nikul N. Patel
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.27106
Abstract: Epoxy resin based Unsaturated poly(ester-amide) resins (UPEAs) can be prepared by many methods but here these were prepared by reported method [1]. These UPEAs were then treated with acrylotl chloride to afford acrylated UPEAs resin (i.e. AUPEAs). Interacting blends of equal proportional AUPEAs and vinyl ester epoxy (VE) resin were prepared. APEAs and AUPEAs were characterized by elemental analysis, molecular weight determined by vapour pressure osmometer and by IR spectral study and by thermogravimetry. The curing of interacting blends was monitored on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Based on DSC data in situ glass reinforced composites of the resultant blends have been prepared and characterized for mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. Unreinforced blends were characterized by thermogravimetry (TGA).
The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks
Durrheim,David N.; Harris,Bernice N.; Speare,Rick; Billinghurst,Kelvin;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001000100006
Abstract: objective: to study a novel surveillance system introduced in mpumalanga province, a rural area in the north-east of south africa, in an attempt to address deficiences in the system of notification for infectious conditions that have the potential for causing outbreaks. methods: hospital-based infection control nurses in all of mpumalanga?s 32 public and private hospitals were trained to recognize, report, and respond to nine clinical syndromes that require immediate action. sustainability of the system was assured through a schedule of regular training and networking, and by providing feedback to the nurses. the system was evaluated by formal review of hospital records, evidence of the effective containment of a cholera outbreak, and assessment of the speed and appropriateness of responses to other syndromes. findings: rapid detection, reporting and response to six imported cholera cases resulted in effective containment, with only 19 proven secondary cholera cases, during the two-year review period. no secondary cases followed detection and prompt response to 14 patients with meningococcal disease. by the end of the first year of implementation, all facilities were providing weekly zero-reports on the nine syndromes before the designated time. formal hospital record review for cases of acute flaccid paralysis endorsed the value of the system. conclusion: the primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is to ensure timely recognition of syndromes requiring an immediate response. infection control nurses in mpumalanga hospitals have excelled in timely weekly zero-reporting, participation at monthly training and feedback sessions, detection of priority clinical syndromes, and prompt appropriate response. this review provides support for the role of hospital-based nurses as valuable sentinel surveillance agents providing timely data for action.
The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks
Durrheim David N.,Harris Bernice N.,Speare Rick,Billinghurst Kelvin
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study a novel surveillance system introduced in Mpumalanga Province, a rural area in the north-east of South Africa, in an attempt to address deficiences in the system of notification for infectious conditions that have the potential for causing outbreaks. METHODS: Hospital-based infection control nurses in all of Mpumalanga?s 32 public and private hospitals were trained to recognize, report, and respond to nine clinical syndromes that require immediate action. Sustainability of the system was assured through a schedule of regular training and networking, and by providing feedback to the nurses. The system was evaluated by formal review of hospital records, evidence of the effective containment of a cholera outbreak, and assessment of the speed and appropriateness of responses to other syndromes. FINDINGS: Rapid detection, reporting and response to six imported cholera cases resulted in effective containment, with only 19 proven secondary cholera cases, during the two-year review period. No secondary cases followed detection and prompt response to 14 patients with meningococcal disease. By the end of the first year of implementation, all facilities were providing weekly zero-reports on the nine syndromes before the designated time. Formal hospital record review for cases of acute flaccid paralysis endorsed the value of the system. CONCLUSION: The primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is to ensure timely recognition of syndromes requiring an immediate response. Infection control nurses in Mpumalanga hospitals have excelled in timely weekly zero-reporting, participation at monthly training and feedback sessions, detection of priority clinical syndromes, and prompt appropriate response. This review provides support for the role of hospital-based nurses as valuable sentinel surveillance agents providing timely data for action.
Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth
Peter D Massey, David N Durrheim, Nicola Stephens, Amanda Christensen
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-62
Abstract: TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder.During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA) in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19 years age group.Analysing local area TB rates and possible explanatory variables can provide useful insights into the epidemiology of TB. TB notification rates that take country of birth in local areas into account could enable health services to strategically target TB control measures.In many low incidence countries such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, higher rates of tuberculosis (TB) are reported in recent immigrants [1-4]. For example the increasing TB rate in the United Kingdom has been considered a result of increased notifications in migrants from countries with a high TB incidence [5]. In these sett
Research that influences policy and practice – characteristics of operational research to improve malaria control in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
David N Durrheim, Richard Speare, Anthony D Harries
Malaria Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-1-9
Abstract: A series of operational research studies were conducted to refine malaria diagnosis in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa between 1995 and 1999. The grounded theory approach was used with groups of experienced Masters of Public Health students in South Africa and Australia to analyse a compilation of these studies for determining positive and negative attributes of operational research that affect its ability to influence communicable disease control policy and practice.The principal positive attributes of the operational research studies were high local relevance, greater ability to convince local decision-makers, relatively short lag-time before implementation of findings, and the cost-effective nature of this form of research. Potential negative features elicited included opportunities forfeited by using scarce resources to conduct research and the need to adequately train local health staff in research methodology to ensure valid results and accurate interpretation of findings.Operational research effectively influenced disease control policy and practice in rural South Africa, by providing relevant answers to local questions and engaging policy-makers. This resulted in accelerated inclusion of appropriate measures into a local communicable disease control programme."We have at our disposal the tools necessary for achieving control – elimination – eradication of a particular disease", is a common refrain of public health bodies and practitioners. Vaccination programmes have had a major impact on a few key diseases, even in developing countries, but why are there relatively few examples of successful disease control programmes, particularly of non-vaccine preventable endemic diseases in developing settings? The inequitable global distribution of resources available for health care is certainly an important contributory factor. However, even interventions deemed cost-effective for developing environments often fail to perform as expected. Apology, justification or
Meeting measles elimination indicators: surveillance performance in a regional area of Australia
Julie K Kohlhagen,Peter D Massey,David N Durrheim
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2011,
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region has established specific measles elimination surveillance indicators. There has been concern in Australia that these indicators may be too stringent and that measles elimination can occur without all surveillance prerequisites being met, in particular the minimum fever and rash clinician-suspected measles reporting rate with subsequent laboratory exclusion of measles. A regional public health unit in northern New South Wales, Australia, prompted local general practitioners to report fever and rash presentations that met the measles case definition or that they considered to be clinical measles. These notifications from July 2006 to June 2008 were reviewed to determine whether measles indicators for monitoring progress towards measles elimination could be achieved in Australia. Results confirmed that the surveillance indicators of “>2 reported suspected measles cases per 100 000 population,” “at least 80% of suspected cases adequately investigated within 48 hours” and “greater than 80% of cases had adequate blood samples collected” could be met. Only half the cases had virology that would allow genotyping of measles virus. Special efforts to engage and convince Australian medical doctors about the public health value of reporting clinically suggestive measles cases and collecting confirmatory blood tests, resulted in the current WHO Western Pacific Region indicators for progress towards measles elimination being met in a regional area of Australia.
Managing risk in statistics - "Relative risk"
DN Durrheim
South African Family Practice , 2003,
Abstract:
Update on type 2 diabetes
J Dave, N Levitt
Continuing Medical Education , 2009,
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly common and we need to offer our patients better outcomes.
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