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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1921 matches for " Duncan Pritchard "
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A Defence of Quasi-reductionism in the Epistemology of Testimony
Duncan Pritchard
Philosophica , 2006,
Abstract: Two key intuitions regarding knowledge are explored: that knowledge is a kind of cognitive achievement and that knowledge excludes luck. It is claimed that a proper understanding of how these intuitions should inform our conception of knowledge leads to some surprising results, not just as regards the theory of knowledge more generally but also as regards the epistemology of testimonial knowledge. In particular, it is argued that this conception of knowledge motivates a new kind of proposal B quasi-reductionism B that can accommodate the motivations behind both reductionist and anti-reductionist accounts of the epistemology of testimonial knowledge.
Doubt Undogmatized
Duncan Pritchard
Principia : an International Journal of Epistemology , 2000,
Abstract: It has become almost a conventional wisdom to argue that Cartesian scepticism poses a far more radical sceptical threat than its classical Pyrrhonian counterpart. Such a view fails to recognise, however, that there is a species of sceptical concern that can only plausibly be regarded as captured by the Pyrrhonian strategy. For whereas Cartesian scepticism is closely tied to the contentious doctrine of epistemological internalism, it is far from obvious that Pyrrhonian scepticism bears any such theoretical commitments. It is argued here that by viewing the Pyrrhonian style of sceptical argument in terms of this contemporary epistemological externalist/internalist distinction one can gain a new insight into some of the more problematic elements of this variety of classical thought and also get a handle on certain contemporary worries that have been raised regarding the anti-sceptical efficacy of externalist theories of knowledge.
Rorty, Williams, and Davidson: Skepticism and Metaepistemology
Duncan Pritchard,Christopher Ranalli
Humanities , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/h2030351
Abstract: We revisit an important exchange on the problem of radical skepticism between Richard Rorty and Michael Williams. In his contribution to this exchange, Rorty defended the kind of transcendental approach to radical skepticism that is offered by Donald Davidson, in contrast to Williams’s Wittgenstein-inspired view. It is argued that the key to evaluating this debate is to understand the particular conception of the radical skeptical problem that is offered in influential work by Barry Stroud, a conception of the skeptical problem which generates metaepistemological ramifications for anti-skeptical theories. In particular, we argue that, contra Williams, Rorty’s view that Davidson was offering a theoretical diagnosis of radical skepticism can be consistently maintained with his transcendental approach.
Current Trends and Future Directions in Clinical Trials for Malignant Melanoma Treatment Using Anti-Angiogenic Strategies  [PDF]
Daemon Dewing, Rowan Pritchard Jones
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.34040
Abstract: Melanoma is the most lethal skin cancer with a high propensity to metastasis and conventionally is poorly responsive to non-surgical treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Considerable advances have been made recently targeting BRAF mutations and immune regulation and, for the first time, credible options exist for patients with metastatic disease. Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, is an absolute prerequisite for tumour growth beyond a few millimetres in size. Melanoma neovascularisation is correlated with poor prognosis, reduced overall survival, ulceration and increased rate of relapse. Melanoma cells secrete several proangiogenic cytokines including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor VEGF-A and raised levels of expression are associated with the switch from indolent radial, to invasive vertical and then metastatic growth phases. Understanding the processes underlying angiogenesis and how it relates to tumour growth broadly and to melanoma specifically is instrumental in the current drive to develop new treatments that target a range of tumour cell receptors and intracellular processes from receptor antagonism to monoclonal antibodies aimed at the disruption of the process of tumour angiogenesis. We discuss recent and current trials for metastatic melanoma therapy, and discuss potential directions of future treatment scheduling considering different treatment scheduling approaches beyond the parameters of standard drug trials.
Endocrinology and hormone therapy in breast cancer: Endocrine therapy in premenopausal women
Kathleen Pritchard
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1002
Abstract: Endocrine therapy, developed over a century ago [1,2], remains the most effective and the most clearly targeted form of systemic therapy for breast cancer. Endocrine treatments work best in women whose tumours are positive for oestrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PgR). As we continue to search for newer targeted therapies that will shrink cancers effectively with few undesired side effects, and carry out complex statistical analyses to identify predictive factors, we should not forget the first targeted cancer therapy, namely ovarian ablation (OA) for breast cancer, and the first predictive factor for treatment of any cancer, the ER.For many years adjuvant OA was used and felt to be helpful, but randomized trials were not done. Subsequently, a few small randomized trials were conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. Before the first Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) or Oxford overview was published in 1984 [3], it was generally believed that these trials showed no benefit for OA. When the meta-analytic techniques used in the EBCTCG overview were applied to these small trials, however, it became apparent that OA was associated with a reasonably large positive effect on both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in node-positive and node-negative premenopausal women [3-5].The most recent EBCTCG overview http://www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/projects/ebctcg webcite, carried out in September 2000, included updated information on 4900 women aged under 50 years included in 15 trials of OA. Only about 1300 of these women were in trials of OA in the absence of chemotherapy, whereas more than 3500 were in trials of OA in the presence of chemotherapy. In this updated analysis there was a clear separation between the trials of OA versus no treatment in the absence of chemotherapy and trials of OA plus chemotherapy versus the same chemotherapy. In the former trials large and highly significant positive effects of OA persisted at 15 years in
Confounding from Cryptic Relatedness in Case-Control Association Studies.
PLOS Genetics , 2005,
Abstract: Case-control association studies are widely used in the search for genetic variants that contribute to human diseases. It has long been known that such studies may suffer from high rates of false positives if there is unrecognized population structure. It is perhaps less widely appreciated that so-called "cryptic relatedness" (i.e., kinship among the cases or controls that is not known to the investigator) might also potentially inflate the false positive rate. Until now there has been little work to assess how serious this problem is likely to be in practice. In this paper, we develop a formal model of cryptic relatedness, and study its impact on association studies. We provide simple expressions that predict the extent of confounding due to cryptic relatedness. Surprisingly, these expressions are functions of directly observable parameters. Our analytical results show that, for well-designed studies in outbred populations, the degree of confounding due to cryptic relatedness will usually be negligible. However, in contrast, studies where there is a sampling bias toward collecting relatives may indeed suffer from excessive rates of false positives. Furthermore, cryptic relatedness may be a serious concern in founder populations that have grown rapidly and recently from a small size. As an example, we analyze the impact of excess relatedness among cases for six phenotypes measured in the Hutterite population.
Review: Where Fate Beckons: The Life of Jean-Francois de La Pérouse, by John Dunmore
Pritchard, James
Journal of Historical Biography , 2009,
Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers
Gail Pritchard
Journal of Social Inclusion , 2010,
Abstract: This paper contends that disabled teachers are in such short supply as to be invisible even amongst minority teachers from already vastly marginalised populations. This is not simply because discriminatory practices are embedded within employment policies of educational systems, but deeply held socio-cultural attitudes also prevent disabled people accessing and attaining basic and later, higher levels of academic achievement. The central argument here is a simple one; disabled people as teachers offer a unique knowledge standpoint, challenge the animosity of dominant cultural beliefs around disability as analogous with passivity or non-achieving, and provide a source of resistance, solace and resolution for students they teach. Disabled people as educators enact exemplary pedagogic justice and socially inclusive practice. The aim of this paper is to explore the benefits to students and places of higher education alike of embracing both the person and the role of the teacher with disability as culturally relevant educators.
Edge Cover Colouring Versus Minimum Degree in Multigraphs
David Pritchard
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: An edge colouring of a multigraph can be thought of as a partition of the edges into matchings (a matching meets each vertex at most once). Analogously, an edge cover colouring is a partition of the edges into edge covers (an edge cover meets each vertex at least once). We aim to determine a tight lower bound on the maximum number of parts in an edge cover colouring as a function of the minimum degree delta, which would be an analogue of Shannon's theorem from 1949 on edge-colouring multigraphs. We are able to give a lower bound that is tight except when delta=9 or delta is odd and > 12; in these non-tight cases the best upper and lower bounds differ by one.
An Optimal Distributed Edge-Biconnectivity Algorithm
David Pritchard
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: We describe a synchronous distributed algorithm which identifies the edge-biconnected components of a connected network. It requires a leader, and uses messages of size O(log |V|). The main idea is to preorder a BFS spanning tree, and then to efficiently compute least common ancestors so as to mark cycle edges. This algorithm takes O(Diam) time and uses O(|E|) messages. Furthermore, we show that no correct singly-initiated edge-biconnectivity algorithm can beat either bound on any graph by more than a constant factor. We also describe a near-optimal local algorithm for edge-biconnectivity.
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