Abstract:
Background : Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy globally. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is largely subjective. Gradual progression of cells from normal to invasive involves nuclear changes that need to be viewed objectively. Aims : This study aims to apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates. It evaluates its utility in differentiating benign vs. malignant lesions and correlates it with cytologic grading in malignant cases. Setting and Design : Nuclear morphometric parameters of malignant and benign cases were compared. Parameters of malignant cases were correlated with cytologic grading. Materials and Methods : Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from breast lumps into malignant (53 cases) and benign (29 cases). One hundred cells per case in both groups were mapped on DEBEL Cytoscan and six geometrical and three textural parameters obtained were compared. In malignant cases, morphometry was correlated with Robinson′s cytologic grading, which was further correlated in tissue sections (45 cases) with modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. Statistical Analysis : Students "t"-test was applied for comparison between benign and malignant cases. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s post hoc comparison was applied to compare the three cytologic grades. Results were considered significant when P<0.05. Results : Nuclear morphometry successfully differentiated between benign and malignant aspirates and correlated significantly with cytologic grades. Morphometry was especially useful in the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Useful parameters were mean nuclear area, long axis, short axis and total run length. Cytohistologic correlation was 83.3%, 88.9% and 88.9% for cytological grades 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusions : Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in the evaluation of breast masses.

Abstract:
We study the Segal-Bargmann transform on a motion group Rn n K; where K is a compact subgroup of SO(n): A characterization of the Poisson integrals associated to the Laplacian on Rn n K is given. We also establish a Paley-Wiener type theorem using the complexified representations.

Abstract:
We study the Segal-Bargmann transform on the Heisenberg motion groups $\mathbb{H}^n \ltimes K,$ where $\mathbb{H}^n$ is the Heisenberg group and $K$ is a compact subgroup of $U(n)$ such that $(K,\mathbb{H}^n)$ is a Gelfand pair. The Poisson integrals associated to the Laplacian for the Heisenberg motion group are also characterized using Gutzmer's formulae. Explicitly realizing certain unitary irreducible representations of $\mathbb{H}^n \ltimes K,$ we prove the Plancherel theorem. A Paley-Wiener type theorem is proved using complexified representations.

Differential regeneration
potentiality of two cotyledons (Cot and Cot E) of Vigna radiata seed during in
vitro shoot differentiation is now well established. In the present study, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level (both bound and free form) was estimated
using high performance liquid chromatography technique from these two explant
types prior to the induction of in vitro differentiation. Both free and conjugated forms of endogenous ABA were higher in Cot than Cot E. However, the bound form of ABA was higher than free
or active form in both the explants. Effects of an ABA catabolic inhibitor,
diniconazole on the endogenous ABA production potential were determined. Diniconazole inhibits ABA 8’-hydroxylase,
the catabolizing enzyme, resulting in accumulation of free ABA in the cell. It
was noted that diniconazole inhibited bound form of ABA formation in a
concentration dependant manner with a concomitant increase in the free form and
decrease in shoot differentiation from Cot E explants. Likewise, exogenously
applied ABA in in vitro culture also
resulted in decrease in shoot regeneration frequency from the cotyledonary
explants

Abstract:
A new checkpointing and failure recovery algorithm for mobile computing system is proposed here.Mobile hosts save checkpoints based on mobility and movement patterns.Movement patternsconsidered here are of three types – i) Intercell movement pattern ii) combination movement patternii) Intracell movement pattern. Mobile hosts save checkpoints when number of hand-off exceeds apredefined hand-off threshold value. Disconnection is a frequent phenomenon and is of two types: i)planned disconnection ii) unplanned disconnection.Hence mobile hosts save two types ofcheckpoints - i) permanent checkpoint based on hand-off threshold value covering unplanneddisconnection ii) migration checkpoint covering planned disconnection. Hand-off threshold is afunction mobility rate , movement pattern, message passing frequency and failure rate.

Abstract:
An efficient fault tolerant algorithm based on movement-based secure checkpointing and logging formobile computing system is proposed here. The recovery scheme proposed here combines independentcheckpointing and message logging. Here we consider mobility rate of the user in checkpointing so thatmobile host can manage recovery information such as checkpoints and logs properly so that a mobilehost takes less recovery time after failure. Mobile hosts save checkpoints when number of hand-offexceeds a predefined hand-off threshold value. Current approaches save logs in base station. But thisapproach maximizes recovery time if message passing frequency is large. If a mobile host saves log in itsown memory, recovery cost will be less because log retrieval time will be small after failure. But there isa probability of memory crash of a mobile host. In that case logs can not be retrieved if it is saved only inmobile node. If the failure is transient then logs can be retrieved from the memory of mobile node.Hence in this algorithm mobile hosts also save log in own memory and base station. In case of crashrecovery, log will be retrieved from base station and in case of transient failure recovery logs will beretrieved from mobile host. In this algorithm recovery probability is optimized and total recovery time isreduced in comparison to existing works. Logs are very small in size. Hence saving logs in mobile hostsdoes not cause much memory overhead. Hand-off threshold is a function of mobility rate, messagepassing frequency and failure rate of mobile hosts. This algorithm describes a secure check pointingtechnique as a method for providing fault tolerance while preventing information leakage through thecheckpoint data.

Abstract:
In this work we study the contribution of magnetic fields to the Sunyaev Zeldovich (SZ) effect in the intracluster medium. In particular we calculate the SZ angular power spectrum and the central temperature decrement. The effect of magnetic fields is included in the hydrostatic equilibrium equation by splitting the Lorentz force into two terms one being the force due to magnetic pressure which acts outwards and the other being magnetic tension which acts inwards. A perturbative approach is adopted to solve for the gas density profile for weak magnetic fields (< 4 micro G}). This leads to an enhancement of the gas density in the central regions for nearly radial magnetic field configurations. Previous works had considered the force due to magnetic pressure alone which is the case only for a special set of field configurations. However, we see that there exists possible sets of configurations of ICM magnetic fields where the force due to magnetic tension will dominate. Subsequently, this effect is extrapolated for typical field strengths (~ 10 micro G) and scaling arguments are used to estimate the angular power due to secondary anisotropies at cluster scales. In particular we find that it is possible to explain the excess power reported by CMB experiments like CBI, BIMA, ACBAR at l > 2000 with sigma_8 ~ 0.8 (WMAP 5 year data) for typical cluster magnetic fields. In addition we also see that the magnetic field effect on the SZ temperature decrement is more pronounced for low mass clusters ( ~ 2 keV). Future SZ detections of low mass clusters at few arc second resolution will be able to probe this effect more precisely. Thus, it will be instructive to explore the implications of this model in greater detail in future works.

Abstract:
We study the possibility of quasar outflows in clusters and groups of galaxies heating the intracluster gas in order to explain the recent observation of excess entropy in this gas. We use the extended Press-Schechter formalism to estimate the number of quasars that become members of a group of cluster of a given mass and formation epoch. We also estimate the fraction of mechanical energy in the outflows that is imparted to the surrounding medium as a function of the density and temperature of this gas. We finally calculate the total amount of non-gravitational heating from such outflows as a function of the cluster potential and formation epoch. We show that outflows from broad absorption line (BAL) and radio loud quasars can provide the required amount of heating of the intracluster gas. We find that in this scenario most of the heating takes place at $z \sim 1\hbox{--}4$, and that this ``preheating'' epoch is at lower redshift for lower mass clusters.