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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 812 matches for " Driving "
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Developing a General Methodology for Driving Cycle Construction: Comparison of Various Established Driving Cycles in the World to Propose a General Approach  [PDF]
Uditha Galgamuwa, Loshaka Perera, Saman Bandara
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2015.54018
Abstract: Many models have been developed in the world to estimate emission inventories and fuel consumption in the past and those models can be broadly categorized as either a travel based model or a fuel based model. Driving cycles can be considered as one of the major travel based models to estimate emission inventories. It can be used for various purposes such as setting up the emission standards, for traffic management purposes and also to determine the travel time. In the past, researchers have tried to use readily available, well established driving cycles in their environment which is different from the origin of the driving cycle in many aspects. Thus, the attempts have failed to give good quality results. This study attempts to critically evaluate the different methods used for driving cycle construction in different parts of the world under various conditions to propose a general suitable approach to develop a representative and economical driving cycle(s) for a given geographic location for set objectives.
Correlation between the Degree of Liver Fibrosis and Driving Test Alterations as an Indicator of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy  [PDF]
Carlos Tornero, Simona Cioaia, Marina Llopis, Ana Ventura
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2015.54006
Abstract: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a subclinical disorder in patients with liver cirrhosis that may have an impact upon driving capacity. This study in highly selected patients without other confounding factors examines whether there is a relationship between the degree of liver fibrosis as determined by Fibroscan exploration and the driving test scores. Using the ASDE DRIVER-TEST N-845 system, validated for obtaining the driving license in Spain, we assessed the calculation of distances and time, bimanual visual-motor coordination, reaction time to different stimuli, concentrated attention, and resistance to monotony. The data were processed using the SPSS statistical package, with an analysis of the correlation between the degree of fibrosis and the test scores based on the Spearman statistic and the comparison of means (Mann-Whitney U-test). We found no alterations in driving capacity in patients diagnosed of hepatitis C with different degrees of early stage fibrosis or cirrhosis.
Effect of Difference in Form of Driving Support Agent to Driver’s Acceptability
—Driver Agent for Encouraging Safe Driving Behavior (2)
 [PDF]

Takahiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Fujikake, Takashi Yonekawa, Makoto Inagami, Fumiya Kinoshita, Hirofumi Aoki, Hitoshi Kanamori
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2018.83011
Abstract: In recent years, the number of traffic accidents caused by elderly drivers has increased in Japan. However, a car is an important mode of transportation for the elderly. Therefore, to ensure safe driving, a system that can assist elderly drivers is required. In this study, we propose a driver-agent system that provides support to elderly drivers during and after driving and encourages them to improve their driving. This paper describes the prototype system based on the analysis of the teaching records of a human instructor, and the subjective evaluation of driving support to elderly and non-elderly driver from three different agent forms, a voice, visual, and robot. The result revealed that the robot form is more noticeable, familiar, and acceptable to the elderly and non-elderly than other forms.
Driving Skills in HIV-Infected Patients Well Controlled with Antiretroviral Therapy  [PDF]
Carlos Tornero, Inmaculada Poquet, Marine Bourguet, Fernando Gomis-Pajares
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23017
Abstract: A study was made to determine whether HIV-infected patients with prolonged virological control suffer subclinical neurocognitive problems capable of interfering with driving skills, compared with the general population, and to explore the possible existence of differences between those treated with and without efavirenz. Material and Methods: We included 40 patients without history of neoplasm, psychiatric disorders or infections of the central nervous system associated or not to HIV, with stable and effective antiretroviral therapy during at least 48 months. Use was made of the ASDE DRIVER TEST N-845 standardized by the Spanish traffic authorities, and for which data corresponding to the Spanish general population were obtained from the manufacturer of the test battery. The Student t-test was used to compare the different variables with the population standards, and the comparison of proportions Z-statistic was used to determine the proportion of subjects above the accepted limit of normality cutoff point. These analyses were replicated for the two sub-samples (with or without efavirenz therapy), with a 95% confidence level. The SPSS version 15 statistical package and Epidat 3.1 program were used. Results: The scores obtained in the HIV group were significantly poorer in the anticipation speed tests and in one of the multiple reactions test, though better results were obtained in the bimanual visual-motor coordination test. There were no differences in the percentages of patients with scores below the recommended limits. On comparing the treatment subgroups (efavirenz versus protease inhibitor), no differences were recorded in any of the study variables, and the differences with respect to the general population were the same as those described for the global group. Conclusions: Little differences were observed in driving skills in HIV well controlled HIV patients of minor clinical significance, and no differences were found in driving skills between the patients administered Efavirenz and those receiving protease inhibitor treatments.
Limited Knowledge of Safe Driving Practice among Drivers with Diabetes in Armenia: Association with Greater Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents  [PDF]
Lilit Petrosyan, Zhanna Ghazaryan, Greta Muradyan, Elena Aghajanova, Marek Brabece, Denisa Janí?ková ??árská, Katarina Hal?iakova, Jan Polák, Brian M. Frier, Jan Bro?
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2019.91002
Abstract: Aims: The aims of the study were to assess the degree of knowledge and adherence to the recommended safe practice for driving and the risk of road traffic accidents among people with diabetes mellitus in Armenia. Methods: A total of 628 respondents, including 200 drivers, out of 641 consecutive attendees at six diabetes clinics, participated in the survey. A modified British questionnaire on driving and diabetes was used to obtain the relevant data. The information from all 103 drivers treated with insulin and 73 taking sulfonylureas was reviewed. Results: The study revealed that of 176 insulin and sulfonylurea-treated drivers, 161 (91.5%) had never received any advice about safe driving practices. Among the drivers, 156 (88.6%) never measured their blood glucose before, or during driving. The survey revealed that 86 (51.2%) of 168 patients had a history of at least one motor vehicle accident within the previous 5 years. The average road traffic accident rate per person/year was 0.21. Conclusions: The study revealed a lack of knowledge among drivers with diabetes treated with insulin or sulfonylureas concerning recommended safe practices for driving. This was associated with significant hypoglycemia while driving and an elevated rate of road traffic accidents.
Epilepsy and driving
Moetamedi M,Sigarroudi H,Vosooghi R,Hosseini SJ
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2000,
Abstract: Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.
Brain activity during driving with distraction: an immersive fMRI study
Tom A. Schweizer,Karen Kan,Yuwen Hung,Fred Tam
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00053
Abstract: Introduction: Non-invasive measurements of brain activity have an important role to play in understanding driving ability. The current study aimed to identify the neural underpinnings of human driving behavior by visualizing the areas of the brain involved in driving under different levels of demand, such as driving while distracted or making left turns at busy intersections.
Cognitive Impairment and Dangerous Driving: A Decision Making Model for the Psychologist to Balance Confidentiality with Safety  [PDF]
hristopher M. Love, Jennifer Costillo, Robert K. Welsh, Robert K. Welsh, David Brokaw
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23040
Abstract: The Transitional Opportunity Partnership (TOP) is a framework for psychological care of cognitively impaired individuals. In this paper we address the issues associated with cognitively impaired drivers and how the TOP model can assist psychologists in managing the ethical, legal, and moral dilemmas that often occur with this challenging population. This paper offers suggestions for how to therapeutically manage the privilege of driving with cognitively impaired individuals, through client education, increasing awareness of client resistance or in-capacity to recognize impairment, and proactive intervention.
Eye Tracking During High Speed Navigation at Sea  [PDF]
Fredrik Forsman, Anna Sjors, Joakim Dahlman, Torbjorn Falkmer, Hoe C. Lee
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2012.23030
Abstract: Purpose: Professional high speed sea navigational procedures are based on turn points, courses, dangers and steering cues in the environment. Since navigational aids have become less expensive and due to the fact that electronic sea charts can be integrated with both radar and transponder information, it may be assumed that traditional navigation by using paper based charts and radar will play a less significant role in the future, especially among less experienced navigators. Possible navigational differences between experienced and non-experienced boat drivers is thus of interest with regards to their use of navigational aids. It may be assumed that less experienced navigators rely too much on the information given by the electronic sea chart, despite the fact that it is based on GPS information that can be questioned, especially in littoral waters close to land. Method: This eye tracking study investigates gaze behaviour from 16 ex perienced and novice boat drivers during high speed navigation at sea. Results: The results show that the novice drivers look at objects that are close to themselves, like instrumentation, while the experienced look more at objects far away from the boat. This is in accordance with previous research on car drivers. Further, novice boat drivers used the electronic navigational aids to a larger extent than the experienced, especially during high speed conditions. The experienced drivers focused much of their attention on objects outside the boat. Conclusions: The findings verify that novice boat drivers tend to rely on electronic navigational aids. Experienced drivers presumably use the navigational aids to verify what they have observed in the surrounding environment and further use the paper based sea chart to a larger extent than the novice drivers.
Mobile Meat Puppetry? Ruined Infrastructures, Embodiment and Agency in Driving  [PDF]
Andrew Dawson
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2018.81001
Abstract: Contemporary automobilities research is replete with representation of a docile driver body or,as it is sometimes humorously described,a ‘mobile meat puppet’. This emerges, largely from research on automobilitiesin ‘Developed-World’ contexts. Contrastingly, in this article, through ethnography of driving experiences in post-Socialist and post-war Bosnia I explore material grounds for an agential driver. In particular, I consider how the enduring and decaying road infrastructure of Socialist Yugoslavia provides a basis for senses of empowerment in relation to new ethnic-nationalist states that are often experienced as oppressive and controlling.
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