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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 789 matches for " Drenna Waldrop-Valverde "
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Thyroid Function and Depression in HIV-1 Infection  [PDF]
Raymond L. Ownby, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Adarsh Kumar, Mahendra Kumar
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.24037
Abstract: Thyroid abnormalities have been reported in persons with HIV infection, although data have been inconsistent with respect to its frequency and association with specific medications. The purpose of this study was to explore thyroid system response to thyroid releasing hormone stimulation in persons with and without HIV infection and determine the extent to which their response was associated with depression. As part of a larger study of neuroendocrine response persons with HIV-1 infection, control and HIV-1 infected individuals were evaluated. Participants' response to TRH stimulation was evaluated via TSH, total T3, and T4 levels at baseline and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after TRH stimulation. Participants with HIV infection had a more robust response to TRH stimulation as measured by higher levels of TSH, lower levels of T4 and modestly higher levels of T3. Depressed persons had a reduced TSH response to stimulation and lower levels of both T4 and T3, although the effect of depression on T4 was not statistically significant. These results suggest that TSH response to TRH-stimulation may be exaggerated in individuals with HIV infection but reduced in those with depression. They also suggest that the effects of depression and HIV infection may interact, and may provide a partial explanation for observed thyroid abnormalities in HIV-infected individuals. Results thus provide a partial explanation for findings on thyroid and depression in those affected by HIV infection.
Differential Item Functioning Related to Age in the Reading Subtest of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults
Raymond L. Ownby,Drenna Waldrop-Valverde
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/654589
Abstract: Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when items in a measure perform in ways that are different for members of a target group when the different performance is not related to the individual’s overall ability to be assessed. DIF may arise for a number of reasons but is often evaluated in order to ensure that tests and measures are fair evaluations of a group’s abilities. Based on observations when administering the test, we developed the hypothesis that some items on the reading comprehension subtest of the Test of Functional Health Literacy (TOFHLA) might be differentially more difficult for older adults and the elderly due to its use of the cloze response format, in which the participant is required to determine what word, when placed in a blank space in a sentence, will ensure that the sentence is intelligible. Others have suggested that the cloze response format may make demands on verbal fluency, an ability that is reduced with the increasing age. Our analyses show that age-related DIF may present in a nearly one-half of reading comprehension items of the TOFHLA. Results of this measure in older persons should be interpreted cautiously. 1. Introduction Health literacy has assumed increasing importance over the past decade as research has continued to accumulate showing that patients’ levels of it have important relations to their health, use of health services, and health outcomes [1, 2]. Health literacy is defined as “… the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions [3].” It has been related to a number of variables reflecting patients’ ability to obtain and use information to reach their desired state of health, including use of preventive health services, indices of disease control such as glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes, risk for hospitalization, and even increased likelihood for death [1, 4]. One especially important finding in health literacy research has been the fact that racial and ethnic minorities and the elderly perform at lower levels on several measures of health literacy compared to the general population [5, 6]. One widely cited study, for example, was the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) which included a health literacy scale [5]. The study, based on a nationally representative sample, showed that blacks, Hispanics, and the elderly had lower levels of health literacy on the NAAL health literacy scale. Studies with other measures, including the widely used Test of Functional Health Literacy in
Depression care and prevalence in HIV-positive individuals
Raymond L Ownby, Robin J Jacobs, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, et al.
Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NBHIV.S7296
Abstract: ession care and prevalence in HIV-positive individuals Review (5606) Total Article Views Authors: Raymond L Ownby, Robin J Jacobs, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, et al. Published Date August 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 73 - 83 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NBHIV.S7296 Raymond L Ownby1, Robin J Jacobs1, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde2, Felicia Gould2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA Abstract: Depression is among the most common neuropsychiatric disturbances seen in -individuals with HIV infection. Associated with sad mood, disturbed sleep and appetite, and low energy, the symptoms of depression may be difficult to distinguish from those of the -infection itself. Depression has enormous clinical significance in this group of patients, not only for the misery and poor quality of life it causes but also for its negative effect on patients’ sexual risk behavior, substance use, and medication adherence. Depression has been -associated with patients’ immune system functioning and with poorer disease outcomes. Although it can be effectively treated in most individuals, fewer than one half of patients with depression are -correctly diagnosed and still fewer receive adequate treatment. Effective treatments for -depression in this group include antidepressant medication, individual and group psychotherapy, and social support interventions. Given the significance of this common yet under-recognized problem, clinicians should be aware of the implications of failing to aggressively treat depression in HIV-infected individuals.
Baseline medication adherence and response to an electronically delivered health literacy intervention targeting adherence
Ownby RL, Waldrop-Valverde D, Caballero J, Jacobs RJ
Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NBHIV.S36549
Abstract: aseline medication adherence and response to an electronically delivered health literacy intervention targeting adherence Original Research (1069) Total Article Views Authors: Ownby RL, Waldrop-Valverde D, Caballero J, Jacobs RJ Video abstract presented by Raymond L Ownby Views: 53 Published Date October 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 113 - 121 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NBHIV.S36549 Received: 31 July 2012 Accepted: 04 September 2012 Published: 18 October 2012 Raymond L Ownby,1 Drenna Waldrop-Valverde,2 Joshua Caballero,3 Robin J Jacobs1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 2Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA Abstract: Medication adherence in persons treated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be an important focus for intervention. While high levels of adherence are required for good clinical outcomes, research shows many patients do not achieve these levels. Despite multiple interventions to improve adherence, most require multiple sessions delivered by trained clinicians. Cost and lack of trained personnel limit the availability of these interventions. Alternatives to clinician-delivered interventions are interventions provided via electronic devices (eg, personal/tablet computers and smartphones). Modern technology allows devices to provide tailoring of content to patient characteristics and learning needs, and to be excellent platforms to deliver multimedia teaching content. The intervention reported drew on research on health literacy in persons with HIV and the relation of health literacy to medication adherence in persons treated for HIV to develop an electronically delivered application. Using the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills model as a conceptual framework for understanding patients' information needs, a computer-delivered intervention was developed, its usability and acceptability was assessed, and medication adherence in 118 patients for 1 month before and after they completed the intervention was evaluated. Changes in participant adherence were evaluated in sequential models with progressively lower levels of baseline medication adherence. Results show that although changes in adherence in the entire sample only approached statistical significance, individuals with adherence less than 95% showed significant increases in adherence over time. Participants' self-reported knowledge and behavioral skills increased over the course of the study. Their change in information predicted their post-intervention adherence, suggesting a link between the intervention's effects and outcomes. A computer-delivered intervention targeting HIV-related health literacy may thus be a useful strategy for improving patient adherence.
Baseline medication adherence and response to an electronically delivered health literacy intervention targeting adherence
Ownby RL,Waldrop-Valverde D,Caballero J,Jacobs RJ
Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Raymond L Ownby,1 Drenna Waldrop-Valverde,2 Joshua Caballero,3 Robin J Jacobs11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 2Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USAAbstract: Medication adherence in persons treated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be an important focus for intervention. While high levels of adherence are required for good clinical outcomes, research shows many patients do not achieve these levels. Despite multiple interventions to improve adherence, most require multiple sessions delivered by trained clinicians. Cost and lack of trained personnel limit the availability of these interventions. Alternatives to clinician-delivered interventions are interventions provided via electronic devices (eg, personal/tablet computers and smartphones). Modern technology allows devices to provide tailoring of content to patient characteristics and learning needs, and to be excellent platforms to deliver multimedia teaching content. The intervention reported drew on research on health literacy in persons with HIV and the relation of health literacy to medication adherence in persons treated for HIV to develop an electronically delivered application. Using the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills model as a conceptual framework for understanding patients' information needs, a computer-delivered intervention was developed, its usability and acceptability was assessed, and medication adherence in 118 patients for 1 month before and after they completed the intervention was evaluated. Changes in participant adherence were evaluated in sequential models with progressively lower levels of baseline medication adherence. Results show that although changes in adherence in the entire sample only approached statistical significance, individuals with adherence less than 95% showed significant increases in adherence over time. Participants' self-reported knowledge and behavioral skills increased over the course of the study. Their change in information predicted their post-intervention adherence, suggesting a link between the intervention's effects and outcomes. A computer-delivered intervention targeting HIV-related health literacy may thus be a useful strategy for improving patient adherence.Keywords: health literacy, medication adherence, cognition
Community-Based Risk Reduction in Zambia
D.L. Jones, S.M. Weiss, D. Waldrop-Valverde, N. Chitalu, M. Mumbi and S. Vamos
The Open Health Services and Policy Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874924000801010045]
Abstract: Following the trial of a sexual risk reduction intervention conducted at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia, this pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility of conducting the intervention at the Community Health Center (CHC) level. UTH staff implemented assessments and the intervention while CHC staff provided logistic and administrative support. HIV seropositive women (CHC n = 200; UTH n = 612) attended group sessions in which male partners were randomized to a three-session or one-session group intervention arm. At baseline, consistent use of male and female condoms differed between sites (HIV+ UTH, 73%, CHC, 88%, HIV– UTH, 42%, CHC 65%); both sites increased combined condom use at 6 months post baseline and maintained increases over baseline at 12 months. Participants did not differ between sites at baseline on condom attitudes, HIV knowledge or self efficacy. At 12 months post baseline, both sites had improved in attitudes, knowledge and efficacy and participant retention was lower at the UTH site (77% versus 82%). Inconsistent sexual barrier users increased to consistent use at both sites after 6 months (HIV positive UTH, 96%, CHC, 99%, HIV negative UTH, 84%, CHC 100%). At 12 months, HIV negative CHC participants maintained higher levels of condom use in comparison with UTH participants (F = 7.17, p = .001). Results illustrate the feasibility and efficacy of conducting group sexual risk reduction interventions in the Zambian community, and the potential for the use of group interventions in conjunction with existing CHC Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) programs.
Sexual risk reduction among Zambian couples
DL Jones, N Chitalu, P Ndubani, M Mumbi, SM Weiss, O Villar-Loubet, S Vamos, D Waldrop-Valverde
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2009,
Abstract: Zambia has over 1 million HIV infections nationwide and an urban prevalence rate of 23%. This study compared the impact of male involvement in multiple and single session risk reduction interventions among inconsistent condom users in Zambia and the role of serostatus among HIV-seropositive and serodiscordant couples. Couples (N=392) were randomised into intervention arms. Among inconsistent condom users at baseline (N=83), condom use increased in both conditions and this increase was maintained over a 12- month period. At 12 months, seronegative men in the multiple session condition increased sexual barrier (male and female condoms) use in comparison with those in the single session condition (F=16.13, p=0.001) while seropositive individuals increased sexual barrier use regardless of condition. Results illustrate the importance of both single and multiple session risk reduction counselling among seronegative men in serodiscordant couples in Zambia, and highlight the differing perception of risk between seropositive and serodiscordant persons.
Scaling of olfactory antennae of the terrestrial hermit crabs Coenobita rugosus and Coenobita perlatus during ontogeny
Lindsay D Waldrop,Roxanne M Bantay,Quang V Nguyen
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.390v1
Abstract: Although many lineages of terrestrialized crustaceans have poor olfactory capabilities, crabs in the family Coenobitidae, including the terrestrial hermit crabs in the genus Coenobita, are able to locate food and water using olfactory antennae (antennules) to capture odors from the surrounding air. Terrestrial hermit crabs begin their lives as small marine larvae and must find a suitable place to undergo metamorphosis into a juvenile form, which initiates their transition to land. Juveniles increase in size by more than an order of magnitude to reach adult size. Since odor capture is a process heavily dependent on the size and speed of the antennules and physical properties of the fluid, both the transition from water to air and the large increase in size during ontogeny could impact odor capture. In this study, we examine two species of terrestrial hermit crabs, Coenobita perlatus H. Milne-Edwards and Coenobita rugosus H. Milne-Edwards, to determine how the antennule morphometrics and kinematics of flicking change in comparison to body size during ontogeny, and how this scaling relationship could impact odor capture by using a simple model of mass transport in flow. Many features of the antennules, including the chemosensory sensilla, scaled allometrically with carapace width and increased slower than expected by isometry, resulting in relatively larger antennules on juvenile animals. Flicking speed scaled as expected with isometry. Our mass-transport model showed that allometric scaling of antennule morphometrics and kinematics leads to thinner boundary layers of attached fluid around the antennule during flicking and higher odorant capture rates as compared to antennules which scaled isometrically. There were no significant differences in morphometric or kinematic measurements between the two species.
Scaling of olfactory antennae of the terrestrial hermit crabs Coenobita rugosus and Coenobita perlatus during ontogeny
Lindsay D. Waldrop,Roxanne M. Bantay,Quang V. Nguyen
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.535
Abstract: Although many lineages of terrestrial crustaceans have poor olfactory capabilities, crabs in the family Coenobitidae, including the terrestrial hermit crabs in the genus Coenobita, are able to locate food and water using olfactory antennae (antennules) to capture odors from the surrounding air. Terrestrial hermit crabs begin their lives as small marine larvae and must find a suitable place to undergo metamorphosis into a juvenile form, which initiates their transition to land. Juveniles increase in size by more than an order of magnitude to reach adult size. Since odor capture is a process heavily dependent on the size and speed of the antennules and physical properties of the fluid, both the transition from water to air and the large increase in size during ontogeny could impact odor capture. In this study, we examine two species of terrestrial hermit crabs, Coenobita perlatus H. Milne-Edwards and Coenobita rugosus H. Milne-Edwards, to determine how the antennule morphometrics and kinematics of flicking change in comparison to body size during ontogeny, and how this scaling relationship could impact odor capture by using a simple model of mass transport in flow. Many features of the antennules, including the chemosensory sensilla, scaled allometrically with carapace width and increased slower than expected by isometry, resulting in relatively larger antennules on juvenile animals. Flicking speed scaled as expected with isometry. Our mass-transport model showed that allometric scaling of antennule morphometrics and kinematics leads to thinner boundary layers of attached fluid around the antennule during flicking and higher odorant capture rates as compared to antennules which scaled isometrically. There were no significant differences in morphometric or kinematic measurements between the two species.
PRáCTICAS FUNERARIAS DESDE LA ARQUEOLOGíA: EL CASO DE LAS MOMIAS DE LA SIERRA NEVADA DEL COCUY
Valverde,Alejandra;
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología , 2007,
Abstract: this article is about of archaeological theory around funerary practices. this is not only an exclusive debate about theory; but also the article shows the interpretations about funerary practices and, then, applies these theories to understand the lache mummies found in la sierra nevada del cocuy, colombia.
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