Abstract:
One of the insects that feeds on pedunculate oak acorns and reduces its seed yield is Curculio elephas Gyll. The study of Curculio elephas Gyll is necessary because of the severe damages caused by this insect and also owing to its insufficiently investigated biology. The research was conducted in the common oak seed orchard at Banov Brod, forest estate Sremska Mitrovica“, and in the entomological laboratory. The adults emerge from the soil chambers from mid July till the beginning of September. The presence of adults, as determined by crown fogging, ranged from the end of July till the beginning of September with the highest number in mid August. After emerging from the soil, females are already fertile with the developed eggs in the ovaries. They start egg laying after 1 to 8 days and they lay from one to seven eggs per day. Egg laying period lasts from 7 to 20 days. Fertility of C. elephas females ranges from 5 to 40 eggs, while their fecundity ranges from 19 to 45 eggs. At the end of the larval stage, larvae bore into the soil and stay there from one to three years. The species hibernates only in the larval stage. C. elephas has a one-year life cycle, while a minor part of the population has a two or three-year life cycle.

Abstract:
Autoradiography was used to localize estrogen- accumulating cells in the amygdala (AMY) of seven adult male rats (85 days old). Two hours after injection with H-E2, the animals were sacrificed and, after processing for autoradiography, the labelled sites in the AMY were studied. The nuclei of the AMY which showed the highest density of estrogen binding (receptors) were nucleus medialis (NM), nucleus corticalis (NCO), nucleus centralis (NCE) and massa intercalata (Ml). These nuclei belong to the phylogenetically older corticomedial part of the AMY. Light to moderate labeling was present in the phylogenetically younger nucleus basomedialis (NBM) and nucleus basolateralis (NBL). Scant labeling was present in nucleus lateralis anterior (NLA) and nucleus lateralis posterior (NLP) both from the phylogenetically younger basolateral pan of the adult male rat AMY. This distribution of estrogen receptors could be related to the biologically more significant influence of estrogen on the regions of response divergence than on regions of sensory convergence in the AMY.

Model of an atom by analogy with the transmission line is derived
using Maxwell’s equations and Lorentz’ theory of electrons. To be realistic such a
model requires that the product of the structural coefficient of Lecher’s
transmission lines σ and atomic number Z is constant. It was
calculated that this electromechanical constant is 8.27756, and we call it
structural constant. This constant_{ }builds the fine-structure
constant 1/α=137.036, and with permeability μ,
permittivity ε and elementary charge e builds Plank’s constant h.
This suggests the electromagnetic character of Planck’s constant. The relations
of energy, frequency, wavelength and momentum of electromagnetic wave in an
atom are also derived. Finally, an equation, similar to Schrodinger’s equation,
was derived, with a clear meaning of the wave function, which represents the
electric or magnetic field strength of the observed electromagnetic wave.

The equations for energy, momentum, frequency, wavelength and also
Schr?dinger equation of the electromagnetic wave in the atom are derived using
the model of atom by analogy with the transmission line. The action constant A_{0 }= (μ_{0}/ε_{0})^{1/2}s_{0}^{2}e^{2} is a key term in the above
mentioned equations. Besides the other well-known quantities, the only one
unknown quantity in the last expression is a structural constant s_{0.} Therefore, this article
is dedicated to the calculation of the structural constant of the atoms on the
basis of the above mentioned model. The structural constant of the atoms s_{0 }= 8.27756 shows
up as a link between macroscopic and atomic world. After calculating this
constant we get the theory of atoms based on Maxwell’s and Lorentz
equations only. This theory does not require Planck constant h, which once was introduced
empirically. Replacement for h is the
action constant A_{0}, which
is here theoretically derived, while the replacement for fine structure
constant α is 1/(2s_{0}^{2}). In this way,
the structural constant s_{0} replaces both constants, h and α. This paper also defines the stationary
states of atoms and shows that the maximal atomic number is equal to 2s_{0}^{2 }= 137.036, i.e., as integer should be Z_{max}=137. The presented model
of the atoms covers three of the four fundamental interactions, namely the
electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions.

Abstract:
A century ago the classical physics couldn’t explain many atomic physical phenomena. Now the situation has changed. It’s because within the framework of classical physics with the help of Maxwell’s equations we can derive Schrödinger’s equation, which is the foundation of quantum physics. The equations for energy, momentum, frequency and wavelength of the electromagnetic wave in the atom are derived using the model of atom by analogy with the transmission line. The action constant A0 = (μ0/ε0)1/2s02e2 is a key term in the above mentioned equations. Besides the other well-known constants, the only unknown constant in the last expression is a structural constant of the atom s0. We have found that the value of this constant is 8.277 56 and that it shows up as a link between macroscopic and atomic world. After calculating this constant we get the theory of atoms based on Maxwell’s and Lorentz equations only. This theory does not require knowledge of Planck’s constant h, which is replaced with theoretically derived action constant A0, while the replacement for the fine structure constant α^{-1} is theoretically derived expression 2s02 = 137.036. So, the structural constant s0 replaces both constants h and α. This paper also defines the stationary states of atoms and shows that the maximal atomic number is equal to Zmax = 137. The presented model of the atoms covers three of the four fundamental interactions, namely the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions.

Abstract:
A quantum
information theory is derived for multidimensional signals scaling. Dynamical data
modeling methodology is described for decomposing a signal in a coupled structure
of binding synergies, in scale-space. Mass conservation principle, along with a
generalized uncertainty relation, and the scale-space wave propagation lead to a
polynomial decomposition of information. Statistical map of data, through dynamical
cascades, gives an effective way of coding and assessing its control structure.
Using a multi-scale approach, the scale-space wave information propagation is utilized
in computing stochastic resonance synergies (SRS), and a data ensemble is conceptualized
within an atomic structure. In this paper, we show the analysis of multidimensional
data scatter, exhibiting a point scaling property. We discuss applications in image
processing, as well as, in neuroimaging. Functional neuro-cortical mapping by multidimensional
scaling is explained for two behaviorally correlated auditory experiments, whose
BOLD signals are recorded by fMRI. The point scaling property of the information
flow between the signals recorded in those two experiments is analyzed in conjunction
with the cortical feature detector findings and the auditory tonotopic map. The
brain wave nucleons from an EEG scan, along with a distance measure of synchronicity
of the brain wave patterns, are also explained.

Abstract:
Effects of estrogen in the brain regions which are not directly related to neuroendocrine functions are not fully known. Therefore we investigated the long term effects on the cerebellar cortex of a neonatally (3rd day) administered single dose (1 mg) of estrogen. Golgi impregnated and paraffin sections (Bielschowsky, Kl ver-Barerra and basic fuchsin-alcian-blue) of cerebella of 10 treated adult (365 days old) male rats and of 10 matched controls were studied. Simultaneous to the morphological analysis of the cerebellar cortex, stereological methods were applied. In treated rats the Purkinje neurons had a more developed dendritic arborisation with numerous spines, but had significantly decreased (p<0.001) cellular body volumes (14 x 10-3 mm3) in comparison to controls (27 x 10-3 mm3). In treated animals the molecular layer thickness (148.94 μm) of the cerebellar cortex was significantly decreased (p<0.001) compared to controls (514.52 μm), and the thickness of the granular layer (372.35 μm) was significantly (p<0.001) increased compared to controls (270.80 μm). In treated rats the number of neurons in the granular layer was 338.87 mm2 (controls 118.81 mm2) and in the molecular layer was 22.86 mm2 (controls 55.23 mm2). Our results indicate significant and long term effects of a single dose of estrogen (administered in the neonatal period) on the cerebellar cortex of male rats.

Abstract:
This study was designed to determine whether adult neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of rats, and to explore the possibility that this process is regulated by the activation of sex hormones. The proliferation of hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells was investigated using 80 nC; 3H thymidine incorporation in the first group andin the second grouph 80 μCi3H - thymidine and 1mg estrogene dipropionae. We proved the existence of a stronger proliferation of granule cells in SGZ GD in female rats. The third group of newborn female Wistar rats was treated at 4 and 8 a days of ageold with a single dose of 2 mg of testosterone propionate. We proved the existence of minor damages of granule cells in SGZ GD. In the fourth group treated at 15 days of age, a single dose of 4 mg testosterone propionate and sacrificed when 60 days old, we proved the existence of minor damages of granular cells in SGZ GD. Our results suggest a differential effect of sex hormones on dentate gyrus granule cells proliferation through early life in rats.

Abstract:
Within experimental, human and veterinary medicine, more and more attention has been paid to experimental animals. One of them being the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus). The small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus) has a shod muzzle, small teeth, and is mostly of gray-greenish color; the lower pan of its neck, chest, belly and inner sides of its thoracic limbs being whitish. Its total length is about 110 cm, the tail being 50 cm long. On its head, on both sides, there are white hairs directed towards the neck, reminiscent of whiskers. The monkeys have large buccal sacs. The extremities and tail are more gray than the rest of the body. The skin of the face, ears and fore limbs is black. The digits are very long, whilst the thumb short. Cell cultures from the small green monkey are used for the cultivation of poliovirus in the manufacture of vaccines against poliomyelitis. In addition, kidney cultures from the same monkey serve for detection of the virus in biological material. This was the main reason that prompted us to undertake a study of one part of the monkey's cardiosvascular system and thus contribute to a better understanding of the structure of its body.

Abstract:
In this study the effects of a neonatally (3rd day of life) administered single dose (1 mg) of estradiol dipropionate (E2) on the parietal cortex of juvenile (16 days of life) female rats were investigated. The morphology the volume of the soma and the thickness of the apical dendrite were studied in Golgi impregnated pyramidal neurons from both the external and internal pyramidal layers. In the treated female rats the volume of the soma and the thickness of the apical dendrite of pyramidal neurons was increased surpassing the values in the corresponding controls. These findings indicated significant and prolonged effects of a single dose of estrogen administered in the neonatal period, on the parietal neocortical pyramidal neurons of female rats.