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PVC/CdS nanocomposites have been prepared by solution casting method taking 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% of CdS nanoparticles. PVC/CdS nanocomposites were characterized through TEM measurement. The measurement of effective thermal conductivity of PVC/CdS nanocomposites has also been done using transient plane source (TPS) method. The effects of concentration of CdS nanoparticles and temperature on the effective thermal conductivity of polymer PVC/CdS nanocomposites have been studied. The variation of effective thermal conductivity with the concentration of filler particles and temperature has also been discussed in terms of dispersion of filler particles into polymer matrix and phonon scattering mechanism, respectively.