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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210805 matches for " Dr. Rakesh P. Patel "
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Nanoparticles and its applications in field of pharmacy
Dr. Rakesh P. Patel,N. A. Patel,D. J. patel
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2008,
Abstract: Nanotechnology is the synergy of mechanical, material sciences, microelectronics, electrical, chemical and biological screening. Nanotechnologies are the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale.This systemic review highlights classifications, preparation techniques, characterization methods, applications, health implications and clinical aspects of nanoparticles. 1. Introduction on Nanotechnology and NanoparticlesNanoscience is the study of phenomenon and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale. Nanoelement can be defined as:
Niosome: An Unique Drug Delivery System
Dr. Rakesh P. Patel,Ms. Nikunjana R. Patel,Ritesh B. Patel
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: The ideal drug delivery system delivers drug at rate dictated by the need of the body over the period of treatment and it channels the active entity solely to the site of action. Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles obtained on hydration of synthetic nonionic surfactants, with or without incorporation of cholesterol or other lipids. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Niosomes are promising vehicle for drug delivery and being non-ionic, it is less toxic and improves the therapeutic index of drug by restricting its action to target cells. This systemic review article deals with preparation methods, characterizations, factors affecting release kinetic, advantages, and applications of niosomes. 1. IntroductionAt present no available drug delivery system achieves the site specific delivery with controlled release kinetics of drug in predictable manner.Paul Ehrlich, in 1909, initiated the era of development for targeted delivery when he envisaged a drug delivery mechanism that would target directly to diseased cell. Since then, number of carriers were utilized to carry drug at the target organ/tissue, which include immunoglobulins, serum proteins, synthetic polymers, liposomes, microspheres, erythrocytes, niosomes etc(1).Among different carriers liposomes and niosomes are well documented drug delivery.Drug targeting can be defined as the ability to direct a therapeutic agent specifically to desired site of action with little or no interaction with nontarget tissue(2).
Isoflavones and PPAR Signaling: A Critical Target in Cardiovascular, Metastatic, and Metabolic Disease
Rakesh P. Patel,Stephen Barnes
PPAR Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/153252
Abstract: Isoflavone intake through foods and dietary supplements has both health advocates and critics. The latter come from a concern about the estrogenic effects of isoflavones in certain species. However, careful removal of isoflavones and other estrogens from the diet of rodents leads to the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that isoflavones have other mechanisms of action, potentially those involving regulation of fatty acid metabolism via the nuclear receptors PPARα and PPARγ. The goal of this paper was to examine the evidence for isoflavone/PPAR signaling and to identify diseases in which such signaling would have an important impact. It is therefore of note that investigators using a chemical structure approach to discover PPAR ligands identified isoflavones as the best structures in the library of compounds that they tested. Future studies will involve careful identification of the underlying mechanisms whereby isoflavones have their action via PPAR signaling. 1. Introduction The importance of plant estrogens (phytoestrogens) in the human diet has become a topic of great interest [1], as well as dispute [2]. The principal phytoestrogens in the American and Western European diets are the isoflavones in soy foods [3, 4]. It is noteworthy that soy protein is widely used for animal diets both in commercial food production and for animals in research studies. In the latter, it has been realized by several investigators that isoflavones have significant physiological effects. Many toxicologists have been concerned that the estrogenic properties of isoflavones could lead to infertility [5]. Such a connection was first observed in sheep infertility in Western Australia which was attributed to the red clover (Trifolium pratense) that they consume. Red clover contains large amounts of isoflavones [6]. Similar infertility effects were observed in captive cheetahs [7], although this may be related to the failure of the cat family to glucuronidate many xenobiotics [8]. On the other hand, removal of soy from the diets of rats in chemoprevention experiments led to an increase in incidence of chemically induced mammary tumors [9]. Similarly, soy improved the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats on a high-salt diet [10] and ameliorated the cold sensitivity of mice with gene knockouts of the first members of the β oxidation of long-chain fatty acids [11]. Many such examples of the disparate effects of isoflavones have been reported which stem, in part, from a lack of understanding of biological mechanisms of action of isoflavones in individual
Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patch of Aceclofenac
Rakesh P. Patel,Grishma Patel,Ashok Baria
International Journal of Drug Delivery , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system containing drug Aceclofenac with different ratios of hydrophilic (hydroxyl propyl cellulose) and hydrophobic (ethyl cellulose) polymeric systems by the solvent evaporation technique by using 15 % w/w of dibutyl phthalate to the polymer weight, incorporated as plasticizer. Different concentrations of oleic acid and isopropyl myristate were used to enhance the transdermal permeation of Aceclofenac. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers studied by differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy suggested absence of any incompatibility. Formulated transdermal films were physically evaluated with regard to thickness, weight variation, drug content, flatness, tensile strength, folding endurance, percentage of moisture content and water vapour transmission rate. All prepared formulations indicated good physical stability. In-vitro permeation studies of formulations were performed by using Franz diffusion cells. Formulation prepared with hydrophilic polymer containing permeation enhancer showed best in-vitro skin permeation through rat skin (Wistar albino rat) as compared to all other formulations. The results followed the release profile of Aceclofenac followed mixed zero-order and first-order kinetics in different formulation. However, the release profile of the optimized formulation F9 (r2 = 0.9935 for Higuchi) indicated that the permeation of the drug from the patches was governed by a diffusion mechanism. Formulation F9 showed highest flux among all the formulations and 1.369 fold enhancements in drug permeation. These results indicate that the formulation containing 15 % of oleic acid with 10 % Isopropyl myristate give better penetration of Aceclofenac through rat skin. Keywords: Aceclofenac, Transdermal Film, Permeation enhancer, In-vitro permeation study.
Formulation optimization of floating microbeads containing modified Chinese yam starch using factorial design
Adenike Okunlola,Oluwatoyin A Odeku,Rakesh P. Patel
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals , 2012,
Abstract: Controlled release floating metformin hydrochloride microbeads were prepared and optimized using a blend of varying concentrations of freeze-dried pregelatinized Chinese yam starch (Dioscorea oppositifolia L) and sodium alginate. Floating microbeads were prepared by the ionotropic gelation method using 10% w/v calcium chloride as the cross-linking agent and sodium bicarbonate as the gas releasing agent. A full 3^2 factorial design was used to investigate the influence of two variables: concentrations of starch (X1) andsodium bicarbonate (X2) on the swelling, floating lag time and amount of drug released after 1 hour (Q1) and10 hours (Q10). Potential variables such as the concentrations of drug and total polymer were kept constant.The results showed that the properties of the floating microbeads were significantly (p<0.01) affected by the concentration of the modified Chinese yam starch. Buoyancy and drug release appeared to be facilitated by increased concentrations of both starch and sodium bicarbonate in the formulation. The results also show that an optimized formulation of metformin hydrochloride could be obtained with the potential for gastroretentive controlled drug delivery using a blend of freeze-dried pregelatinized Chinese yam starch andsodium alginate.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: An excavator is a typical hydraulic heavy-duty human-operated machine used in general versatile construction operations, such as digging, ground leveling, carrying loads, dumping loads and straight traction. These operations require coordinated movement of boom, arm and bucket in order to control the bucket tip position to follow a desired trajectory. This paper focuses on review of a work carried out by researchers in the field of kinematic modeling of the backhoe attachment to understand relations between the position and rientation of the bucket and spatial positions of joint-links. Kinematic modeling is helpful for understanding and improving the operating performance of the backhoe excavation machine. There are many research work done by researchers in the same field but still there is a scope to develop kinematic modeling of backhoe attachment to predict the digging trajectory as well as better controlling ofbackhoe attachment to carry out required digging task at desired location.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Since the late 50’s hydraulics have been the systems of choice where high force-to-weight ratios are required. Today hydraulic excavators are widely used in construction, mining, excavation, and forestryapplications. The skilled operator also cannot know about the terrain condition, soil parameters, and the soil-tool interaction forces exerted during excavation operation are required to find because these forces helpful for better design of the tool, backhoe parts and for trajectory planning. This paper focuses on the review of a work carried out by researchers in the same field which includes the fundamental of soil mechanics, soil tool interaction forces and various parameters affect on the soil-tool interaction during itsactual digging action. This area is open to carry out further research to know the effect of various parameters on soil-tool interaction, prediction of digging trajectory and excavation forces and for robust design of backhoe mechanism.
Nanomedical Devices: An overview
Geeta M Patel,Ritesh Patel,Dr. Madhabhai Patel,R P Patel
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: A new era on medicine are expected to happen in the coming years.Due to the advances in the field of nanotechnology, nanodevice manufacturing has been growing gradually. Some medical nanodevices may have mobility - the ability to swim through the blood, or crawl through body tissue or along the walls of arteries. Others could have different shapes, colors, and surface textures, depending on the functions they would be intended to perform. They would have different types of robotic manipulators, different sensor arrays. Each medical nanodevice could be designed to do a particular job extremely well, and would have a unique shape and behavior. The most elementary nanomedical devices are used to diagnose illness and to repair damages and infections.
Girish B. Singhal,Rakesh P. Patel,B. G. Prajapati,Nikunjana A. Patel
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Interest in lipid based drug delivery has developed over the past decade fuelled by a better understanding of the multiple roles lipids may play in enhancing oral bioavailability. Moreover, the emergence of novel excipients with acceptable regulatory and safety profiles coupled with advances in formulation technologies have greatly improved the potential for successful lipid based formulations. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) introduced in 1991 represent an alternative carrier system to traditional colloidal carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes and polymeric micro- and nanoparticles. SLN combine advantages of the traditional systems but avoid some of their major disadvantages. This paper reviews the present state of the art regarding production techniques for SLN/ nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), drug incorporation method and types, stability. The potential of SLN/NLC to be exploited for the different administration routes is also highlighted.
Comparison of Non-Axisymmetric Dynamic Response of Imperfectly Bonded Buried Orthotropic Thick and Thin Fluid filled Cylindrical Shell due to Incident Shear Wave (SH Wave)
Rakesh Singh Rajput,,Dr Sunil Kumar,,Dr Alok Chaube,J. P. Dwivedi
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This paper deals with the effect of fluid presence on the non-axisymmetric dynamic response of imperfectly bonded buried orthotropic thick and thin fluid filled pipeline due to incident horizontal shear wave. In the thin shell theory the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia is not considered. The pipeline has been modeled as an infinite cylindrical shell imperfectly bonded to surrounding. An approach similar to Dwivedi and Upadhyay (1989) has been followed wherein a thin layer is assumed between the shell and the surrounding medium (soil) such that this layer possesses the properties of stiffness and damping both. The degree of imperfection of the bond is varied by changing the stiffness and the damping parameters of this layer. Although a general formulation including P-, SV- and SHwave excitations has been presented, numerical results are given for the case of incident SH-waves only. When it is excited by seismic-wave there are two types of soil movements that take place at the time of earthquake both around the epicenter. One is vertical movement (up and down) of the soil and due to this movement the shearwave (S-V and S-H) is developed on the surface of the pipe and other is horizontal movement (compressive or extend) of the soil due to this the longitudinal wave or pressure wave or P-wave is developed on the surface of the pipe. Since it is not possible to condense the results for P-, SV- and SH-waves into one paper, in this paper theresults concerning only the shear waves (SH Wave) are to be presented..With increasing urban population and its dependence on utility services, dynamic response of pipelines to seismic excitation has become a subject of importance.
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