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RE-INTERROGATING THE NATURE AND ROLE OF LITERATURE IN CRITICAL DISCOURSE
Dr. Mark Ighile
The Dawn Journal , 2013,
Abstract: While attempts have been made to give a comprehensive definition of literature, such efforts have, however, ended up producing more questions than answers. This scenario perhaps explains why some scholars are wondering whether the question, “What is literature?” will ever be answered. There is, nevertheless, general agreement on the fact that the definition of literature is substantially tasking as important as it may be, and that there is hardly any book that does. This paper pushes further the discourse by locating the concept of literature within the practical domain of literary criticism; and submits that the meaning and significance of the literary phenomenon lie in its philosophical elasticity and possibilities.
Developing Africa Through Ideology, Spirituality and the Literary Tradition
Mark Ighile
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ccc.1923670020120802.1315
Abstract: There has been a series of scholarly interactions on the viability of situating African ideology and spirituality within literary and biblical discourse. For instance, researchers have asserted that an expression of the African ideological stance has certain implications for theological reflections in Africa. Using the “inculturation hermeneutics” as a theoretical construct, this paper explores how a contextualization of the biblical and literary discourse within the framework of African ideology and spirituality can promote sustainable development in the continent. Key words: Biblical literature; Proverbs; Ideology; Spirituality; Development Résumé Il y a eu une série d’interactions scientifiques sur la viabilité de situer l’idéologie africaine et de la spiritualité dans le discours littéraire et biblique. Par exemple, les chercheurs ont affirmé que l’expression de la position idéologique africaine a des certaines conséquences pour la réflexion théologique en Afrique. L’Utilisation des “herméneutique inculturation” comme une construction théorique, cette étude explore comment une contextualisation du discours biblique et la littéraire dans le cadre de l’idéologie africaine et la spiritualité ne peut promouvoir le développement durable dans le continent. Mots clés: Littérature biblique; Proverbes; L’idéologie; La spiritualité; Le développement
The Poetry of Igue Festival’s Song-Text
Mark Ighile
Studies in Literature and Language , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.sll.1923156320130601.2986
Abstract: This study attempts a poetic analysis of the Igue festival song text. Igue festival is one of the major cultural markers among the Edos, a strategic ethnic group in Nigeria. It is an annual event that ushers in a new year for every Edospeaking person. It is characteristic of the famous “head washing” and the significant display of ‘Ewere leaves”. These are two important cultural practices are central to the royalty and overall development of the Edo kingdom. The study indicates that beyond the historical and cultural implications of the songs is an intricate and predominant interplay of poetry and other aesthetic resources. The songs were analysed based on the critical approach of literary stylistics. This approach was used to examine the literary forms and functions of the selected text within the framework of oral literatures. Finally, it is discovered that the songs have creative potentials and artistic qualities which justify their appreciation as essentially literary masterpiece. Key words: Poetry; Igue; Edo; Orality,; Festival; Songs
A Conceptual Approach to the Study of Song and Music in Benin Society
M. Ighile
Venets : The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies , 2012,
Abstract: This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the appreciation of music among the Benin, a strategic ethnic group in Nigeria. It investigates how concepts such as folk and popular song, music, noise, speech and sound find their relevant expression and place in the socio-cultural, economic, moral and even psychological setting of the Benin world. Finally, it is discovered that a conceptual approach is crucial, not only to the situation of the Benin oral literary values within a Western ideological context, but also in the facilitation of an objective evaluation of critical aspects of the life of people.
Assessment of Livelihood Coping Challenges and Viable Solutions available to Small-scale Farmers Aimed at Enhancing their Resilience to Farming in Bunyala sub-county, Kenya
James Ojigo,DR. Grace Cheserek,DR. Mark Kiptui
Africa International journal of management education and Governance , 2016, DOI: -
Abstract: Farmers in Bunyala sub-county depend on rain fed agriculture and over the years frequent floods and droughts, crop failures and water shortages have become common. Research has shown that small-scale farmers in the developing countries are more vulnerable to rainfall variability due to their reliance on rainfed agriculture and poor adaptive capacity. However, most studies so far have concentrated on climate-driven coping capacity in flood prone areas and arid and semi-arid areas and have not considered the challenges experienced by small scale farmers in the wake of these coping strategies and opportunities and innovations that can be explored to enhance the coping capacity to rainfall variability. The objective of this study was to establish the coping challenges and identify viable solutions through opportunities and innovations to enhance small scale farmers’ resilience to rainfall variability. Data was collected through use of questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion and field observation. Bunyala Sub-County has about 15,245 households in six locations. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to select the required number of respondents. The stratification was based on the populations of six locations. A total of 384 households were randomly selected and sampled from the selected locations together with 11 key informants. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques were used while the results were presented in tables, figures and charts. Findings of the study indicate several challenges stand in their way like lack of technical support and financial constraints. The study recommends that adaptive practices must be promoted while simultaneously strengthening long-term, sustainable institutional responses to help households adapt to rainfall variations. The farmers should be sensitized on the need to engage in sustainable adaptation strategies such as planting drought tolerant crops and use of agricultural technology. Small-scale farmers’ should focus on information gathering, enhance social networks to improve on their financial capability. Local communities be empowered through trainings/skills programs (new technology for farming) to improve small-scale agricultural productivity. Women, as important contributors to food production and income generation, should be empowered to access resources such as finances and land, and trained to develop decision-making skills.
Environmental Effects of Coping Strategies Employed by Small Scale Farmers to Mitigate for Rainfall Variability in Bunyala Sub-County
James Ojigo,DR. Grace Cheserek,DR. Mark Kiptui
Africa International journal of management education and Governance , 2016, DOI: -
Abstract: Farmers in Bunyala sub-county depend on rain fed agriculture and over the years frequent floods and droughts, crop failures and water shortages have become common. Research has shown that small-scale farmers in the developing countries are more vulnerable to rainfall variability due to their high reliance on rainfed agriculture and poor coping capacity. However most studies so far have concentrated on climate-driven adaptive capacity in flood prone areas and arid and semi-arid areas and have not considered the effects on livelihoods and coping strategies to this climate driven changes, especially in areas with both floods and drought regimes like Bunyala sub-county. It is against this background that this study sought to examine the environmental effects of coping strategies employed by smallscale farmers to mitigate for rainfall variability in Bunyala sub-county, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to identify the environmental effects resulting from the coping strategies employed by small scale farmers in Bunyala sub-county to counter the effects of rainfall variability. Household survey, key informant interviews and focused group discussions was used to obtain data on coping strategies and the environmental effects of such coping strategies. The study used questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion and field observation as data collection tools. Bunyala Sub-County has about 15,245 households in six locations. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to select the required number of respondents. The stratification was based on the populations of six locations. A total of 384 households were randomly selected and sampled from the selected locations together with 11 key informants. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques were used while the results were presented in tables, figures and charts. Findings of the study indicate that strategies adopted occasionally tend to have negative impacts on the environment thereby compounding farmer’s problems further. The study recommends that coping practices must be promoted while simultaneously strengthening long-term, sustainable institutional responses to help households adapt to rainfall variations. There is need to promote livelihood diversification initiatives that enhance improved income generation at the same time ensuring they have minimal negative impacts on the environment.
Modeling of Banking Profit via Return-on-Assets and Return-on-Equity
Prof. Mark A. Petersen,Dr. Ilse Schoeman
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract:
γ-Tubulin 2 Nucleates Microtubules and Is Downregulated in Mouse Early Embryogenesis
Stanislav Vinopal, Markéta ?ernohorská, Vadym Sulimenko, Tetyana Sulimenko, Věra Vosecká, Matyá? Flemr, Eduarda Dráberová, Pavel Dráber
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029919
Abstract: γ-Tubulin is the key protein for microtubule nucleation. Duplication of the γ-tubulin gene occurred several times during evolution, and in mammals γ-tubulin genes encode proteins which share ~97% sequence identity. Previous analysis of Tubg1 and Tubg2 knock-out mice has suggested that γ-tubulins are not functionally equivalent. Tubg1 knock-out mice died at the blastocyst stage, whereas Tubg2 knock-out mice developed normally and were fertile. It was proposed that γ-tubulin 1 represents ubiquitous γ-tubulin, while γ-tubulin 2 may have some specific functions and cannot substitute for γ-tubulin 1 deficiency in blastocysts. The molecular basis of the suggested functional difference between γ-tubulins remains unknown. Here we show that exogenous γ-tubulin 2 is targeted to centrosomes and interacts with γ-tubulin complex proteins 2 and 4. Depletion of γ-tubulin 1 by RNAi in U2OS cells causes impaired microtubule nucleation and metaphase arrest. Wild-type phenotype in γ-tubulin 1-depleted cells is restored by expression of exogenous mouse or human γ-tubulin 2. Further, we show at both mRNA and protein levels using RT-qPCR and 2D-PAGE, respectively, that in contrast to Tubg1, the Tubg2 expression is dramatically reduced in mouse blastocysts. This indicates that γ-tubulin 2 cannot rescue γ-tubulin 1 deficiency in knock-out blastocysts, owing to its very low amount. The combined data suggest that γ-tubulin 2 is able to nucleate microtubules and substitute for γ-tubulin 1. We propose that mammalian γ-tubulins are functionally redundant with respect to the nucleation activity.
Gender Determination using Fingertip Features
Mr. Jen-Feng Wang,Mr. Chen-Liang Lin,Dr. Yung-Hsien Chang,Dr. Mark L. Nagurka
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2008,
Abstract: Several previous studies have investigated the gender difference of the fingerprint features. However, regarding to the statistical significance of such differences, inconsistent results have been obtained. To resolve this problem and to develop a method for gender determination, this work proposes and tests three fingertip features for gender determination. Fingerprints were obtained from 115 normal healthy adults and comprised of 57 male and 58 female volunteers. All persons were born in Taiwan and were of Han nationality. The age range was18-35 years. The features of this study are ridge count, ridge density, and finger size, all three of which can easily be determined by counting and calculation. Experimental results show that the tested ridge density features alone are not very effective for gender determination. However, the proposed ridge count and finger size features of left little fingers are useful, achieving a classification accuracy of 75% (P-value<0.001) and 79% (P-value<0.001), respectively. The best classification result of 86% accuracy is obtained by using ridge count and finger size features together. This paper closes with a discussion of possible future research directions.
Radiation exposure from diagnostic radiography: an assessment of X-ray beam collimation practice in some Nigerian Hospitals
Mr. Mark C. Okeji MSc,Mrs. Angel Mary Anakwue MSc,Dr. Kenneth Agwuna MBBS FWCR
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2010,
Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the X-ray beam collimation practice, among radiographers, as a measure of radiation protection for patients undergoing radiodiagnostic investigations. Inadequate X-ray beam collimation practice was observed in all the hospitals studied. Light beam misalignment/malfunction, pressure of work and years of experience were identified as major contributory factors. There is therefore need for proper equipment maintenance, employment of adequate number of radiographers and periodic audit of work pattern and output to minimize radiation exposure to the population.
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