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LITERATURE AND IDENTITY: AFRICA AND THE DIASPORIC EXPERIENCE
Dr. Benedict Binebai
The Dawn Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Literature across ages and continents have functioned as the embodiment and interpreter of a peoples’ culture, a conveyor of a people’s language as well as their philosophy, politics, psychology and national character. This is essentially a literary tradition influenced by the search for our roots. Literature whether cast in the mode of agitation, negotiation or based on historical reconstruction or mythological recreation has a touch of identity. That quest for distinctiveness makes literature an epistemological body for contest and negotiation and as a carrier of eccentricity. Across the world, works have been written based on peoples’ culture. Thus, using the post colonialism theory, this paper investigates the dialectical link between literature and identity in Africa and the diaspora. It argues that literature across generic boundaries is a fundamental indicator of identity. Moreover that literature is empowered by identity as identity can also be empowered by literature. The paper concludes that the symbiotic relationship between literature and identity is a fundamental linkage to national and racial heritage.
Dramatizing Subaltern Speakability: Nationalism and Economic Identity in Ola Rotimi’s Akassa Youmi
B Binebai
UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2012,
Abstract: This paper classifies the condition of subalternism as a major productive location for nationalism and identity politics in the post-colonial world. It is predicated on the subaltern theory which underscores the perspective of the ‘‘other’’ as having no voice because of class, gender, and religion. It draws attention to the question of subaltern speakability in the construction of the drama of the Niger Delta by focusing on Ola Rotimi’s Akassa Youmi, a drama of the region which has come to be appreciated as drama of nationalism and identity politics. Special attention is drawn to the fact that the play is founded concretely on minority, oppressed and marginalised voices in the postcolonial universe of the Niger Delta. Thus the creation of this drama is galvanized by the dramatists desire to give voice to the marginalised and oppressed people of Nembe. The study further holds the subaltern premise that subordinated people do not experience their circumstances passively but negotiate their position in society thus becoming agents in the making of their own history.
Pharmacological Isolation of Experimental Models of Drug-resistant Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line  [PDF]
Benedict Onyekachi Odii, Peter Coussons
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.34031
Abstract: Drug resistance is one of the major challenges facing the success of chemotherapy against human hepatocarcinoma (HCC) as well as other types of cancer. Studies with cell lines can serve as initial screening for agents that could modulate drug resistance. Development of a good experimental model of drug-resistant cells is a prerequisite for the success of such cellular studies; but could be laborious and generally time-consuming. Additionally, the high mortality rate associated with advanced HCC calls for a probe into the mechanism of resistance by developing experimental model that mimics clinical method of its treatment. Consequently, we have reported a simplified method of selection of drug-resistant hepatocarcinoma cells from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) cell line using pharmacologic agents, cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). HEPG2 cell line was incubated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CDDP (0 - 20 μM) or 5-FU (0 - 100 μM). Cell viability was assayed by CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit) analysis, and the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for CDDP and 5-FU were established by dose-dependent cytotoxicity curves. The IC50(s) were confirmed by flow cytometric analysis of cell death due to CDDP or 5-FU. Clinical method of treatment was imitated by treating the parental HEPG2 cell line in pulse, at the optimal concentration of either CDDP or 5-FU for 4 to 6 hours. Induction was repeated 6 times, whilst allowing the cells to attain at least 70% confluence between intervals of induction. The resultant drug-resistant sublines, (HEPG2CR) and (HEPG2FR) were found to be stable after over 3 months of drug withdrawal and maintenance in drug-free medium. This was done with the views of establishing a simple, efficient and direct protocol for the development of good cellular models for the study of drug resistance in liver cancer, with possible application in other cancer types.
A Comparison of Two Quantization Procedures for Lineal Gravity
Eric Benedict
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(94)91295-5
Abstract: We consider two programs for quantizing gravity in $1+1$ dimensions, which have appeared in the literature: one using a gauge--theoretic approach and the other following a more conventional ``geometric'' approach. We compare the wave functionals produced by the two different programs by finding matrix elements between the variables of the two theories. We find that the wave functionals are equivalent.
The Four Number Game
Benedict Freedman
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Taking the absolute value of consecutive differences of a cyclicly ordered list of integers constitutes a simple dynamical system. For lists of lenght a power of two the process will terminate in all zeros, but examples with arbitarily long "lives" can be generated. For other lenghts the system can be asymptotically cyclic.
Connected H-irreducible Lie subgroups of Sp(1,n)
Benedict Meinke
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this article we classify all connected H-irreducible Lie subgroups of Sp(1,n) up to conjugacy.
Characterizations of Hardy-Orlicz spaces of quasiconformal mappings
Sita Benedict
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: An H^p-theory of quasiconformal mappings on B^n has already been established. By replacing t^p with a general increasing growth function {\psi}(t) we define the Hardy-Orlicz spaces of quasiconformal mappings and prove various characterizations of these spaces.
Hardy-Orlicz spaces of conformal densities
Sita Benedict
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We define and prove characterizations of Hardy-Orlicz spaces of conformal densities.
Core property of smooth contractive embeddable functions for an elliptic operator
Benedict Baur
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: Given an elliptic differential operator L of second order with smooth coefficients in a bounded domain with smooth boundary. We show that if the coefficients are H\"older-continuous up to the boundary and the boundary is $C^{2,\alpha}$-smooth that on the space of all $C^{2,\alpha}$-smooth (up to the boundary) functions u fulfilling both u=0 and Lu=0 (on the boundary) the operator L is dissipative and closable to an generator of a strong continuous operator semigroup in the space of continuous functions with zero boundary condition. Moreover we show that if the coefficients of the second order and first order derivatives are in $C^{2,\alpha}$ then the above mentioned subspace of $C^{2,\alpha}$ which is a core for the generator of the semigroup, can be embedded (continued) in a contractive and smooth way. Thus we construct a linear extension operator which maps a $C^{2,\alpha}$-smooth function fulfilling the boundary conditions to a $C^{2,\alpha}$-smooth function in $\R^n$ such that the supremum is not increased.
Marginal Likelihood Computation via Arrogance Sampling
Benedict Escoto
Statistics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper describes a method for estimating the marginal likelihood or Bayes factors of Bayesian models using non-parametric importance sampling ("arrogance sampling"). This method can also be used to compute the normalizing constant of probability distributions. Because the required inputs are samples from the distribution to be normalized and the scaled density at those samples, this method may be a convenient replacement for the harmonic mean estimator. The method has been implemented in the open source R package margLikArrogance.
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