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Information Content Inclusion Relation and its Use in Database Queries  [PDF]
Junkang Feng, Douglas Salt
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.33031
Abstract: A database stores data in order to provide the user with information. However, how a database may achieve this is not always clear. The main reason for this seems that we, who are in the database community, have not fully understood and therefore clearly defined the notion of “the information that data in a database carry”, in other words, “the information content of data”. As a result, databases’ capability is limited in terms of answering queries, especially, when users explore information beyond the scope of data stored in a database, the database normally cannot provide it. The underlying reason of the problem is that queries are answered based on a direct match between a query and data (up to aggregations of the data). We observe that this is because the information that data carry is seen as exactly the data per se. To tackle this problem, we propose the notion of information content inclusion relation, and show that it formulates the intuitive notion of the “information content of data” and then show how this notion may be used for the derivation of information from data in a database.
Paradigm Consistency and the Depiction of Stiltedness: The Case of than I versus than me  [PDF]
Douglas J. Wulf
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.23014
Abstract: Close adherence to prescriptive rules of grammar can sometimes produce stilted language, which can impart to language a pompous or stuffy impression. It is ironic that an island of potential unacceptability can arise within what is regarded as Standard English. In instances where prescriptive grammaticality and sociolinguistic appropriateness are in opposition, disagreements over language use can occur. Despite its impact, stiltedness has received little scholarly attention, probably because it is an intangible, subjective phenomenon. This paper investigates an indirect way to depict stiltedness through a quantitative measure. The example selected to demonstrate this approach is the rule of bare pronouns in comparative sentences. With tangible quantitative measurements of paradigm consistency and inconsistency, stiltedness may perhaps be understood more effectively.
Assessing the Sensitivity of Climate Change Targets to Policies of Land Use, Energy Demand, Low Carbon Energy and Population Growth  [PDF]
Douglas Crawford-Brown
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.312178
Abstract: A reduced scale model of the coupled carbon cycle, population dynamics, energy system and land use characteristics is used to assess the sensitivity of atmospheric carbon to a variety of policies. Policies simulated include reduction of the rate of growth of the population; reduction of the rate of conversion of forested land to cropland; reduction in per capita energy demand in developed nations; reduction in per capita energy demand in developing nations; reduction in the carbon intensity of energy production in developed nations; and reduction in the carbon intensity of energy production in developing nations. For each policy, both the time to onset of the policy and the fractional annual rate of change in the associated model variable are established. Using as a measure of sensitivity the extension in years required for atmospheric carbon to reach the policy ceiling of 1160 BMT, achieved at a policy that introduces a rate of change in each affected model variable of 0.05 per year (a 5% change per year), then the policies in decreasing order of sensitivity are: Developing nations per capita growth (17 years), Developing nations carbon intensity (17 years), Population control (11 years), Developed nations carbon intensity (2.9 years), Developed nations per capita growth (2.8 years) and Land use (1.3 years). These values are all approximately doubled when population is stabilised first. An analysis of the model results also shows a convergence of the developed and developing nations per capita carbon emissions by 2100 when a portfolio of policies is selected to prevent a doubling of the pre-industrial revolution level of atmospheric carbon at any point in the future, consistent with a principle of “contract and converge”.
Does Aristotle Refute the Harmonia Theory of the Soul?  [PDF]
Douglas J. Young
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31008
Abstract:

In Aristotle’s On the Soul he considers and refutes two versions of the harmonia theory of the soul’s relation to the body. According to the harmonia theory, the soul is to the body what the tuning of a musical instrument is to its material parts. Though he believes himself to have entirely dismissed the view, he has not. I argue that Aristotle’s hylomorphic account is, in fact, an instance of the harmonia theory.

Perceptions of the Victimization of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities  [PDF]
Douglas N. Evans
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32015
Abstract: Perceptions of the victimization of persons with intellectual disabilities were explored from the perspectives of adults with mild intellectual disabilities as well as service providers and supervisors who work with this population. Interviews were obtained for 10 adults with intellectual disabilities. Additionally, those who work with persons with intellectual disabilities were interviewed: 10 service providers and five supervisors (n = 25). Results indicate that perceptions of victimization were influenced by factors such as victimizer motivations, proximity to victimization, and situational pre-dictability. Offenses that cause harm are recognized as victimization by most, but non-harmful offenses are not always perceived as victimization, especially when respondents were involved in the offense. The implications of these findings related to recognition, reporting, and prevention of victimization are discussed.
Experiencing, Psychopathology, and the Tripartite Mind  [PDF]
Douglas Ozier, Chris Westbury
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.32026
Abstract:

The philosopher Eugene Gendlin argues that a distinctive mode of reasoning, called experiencing, is necessary for working through personally salient problems such as are encountered in psychotherapy. We review supporting empirical support. It is now possible to consider Gendlin’s ideas from a neurological perspective. Work directed at understanding the neurological underpinnings of consciousness and self-related processing, as well as comparative neuroanatomical work, are all consistent with and elucidated by Gendlin’s experiencing construct. We argue from this data that the human mind is composed of three interacting systems that are unique to or enhanced in humans compared to other primates. Two are dedicated to “hot and cold” cognition. The most important, least well-studied third system is dedicated to mediating between these forms of cognition. We outline how interactions between these systems define different forms of psychopathology and what they suggest about the structure of the human mind.

The Role of Advanced Biological Data in the Rationality of Risk-Based Regulatory Decisions  [PDF]
Douglas Crawford-Brown
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.43028
Abstract:

Advanced biological information such as computational biology, in vitro transformation assays, genome pathway analysis, genotoxicity assays, proteomics, gene expression, cell signaling disruption and hormone receptors offer the poten- tial for significant improvements in the ability of regulatory agencies to consider the risks of the thousands of compounds—and mixtures of compounds—currently unexamined. While the science for performing the assays underlying such information is developing rapidly, there is significantly less understanding of the rationality of using these data in specific decision problems. This paper explores these issues of rationality, identifying the issues of rationality that remain to be developed for applications in regulatory risk assessment, and providing a draft decision framework for these applications. The conclusion is that these rapid, high throughput methods hold the potential to significantly improve the protection of public health through better understanding of risks from compounds and mixtures, but incorporating them into existing risk assessment methodologies requires improvements in understanding the reliability and rates of Type I and Type II errors for specific applications.

Deforestation, Agrarian Reform and Oil Development in Ecuador, 1964-1994  [PDF]
Robert Wasserstrom, Douglas Southgate
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.41004
Abstract:

Recent biodiversity research in the Western Amazon has emphasized the linkages among road construction, deforestation and loss of indigenous lands. Many observers have concluded that hydrocarbon production inevitably means destruction of forests and expropriation of native territory. Yet evidence from the eastern lowlands of Ecuador (known as the Oriente) shows that oil can be developed without roads or harmful impacts. The Oriente also provides another contrasting case: in areas where no oil was discovered, the government often built roads to support its agricultural colonization efforts. In these areas, a great deal of deforestation and indigenous displacement occurred. Such evidence suggests that a different set of agrarian and environmental policies might permit oil activity without loss of rain forest or indigenous territory.

 

Regulatory Implications of Cumulative Risk for Perchlorate as an Iodide Uptake Inhibitor  [PDF]
Douglas Crawford-Brown
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.67066
Abstract: This research applies aggregate and cumulative risk assessment considerations to intakes of compounds acting through the sodium-iodide symporter mechanism to produce iodide uptake inhibition into the thyroid. Four approaches to setting regulatory limits considered here based on NOELs/LOELs yield the following estimates of the safe levels of perchlorate in water (when perchlorate in water is the sole intake) or total goitrogens (PEC) acting through the same mechanism: 1) Approach 1: 18 μg/L; 2) Approach 2: 400 μg/L (50% required inhibition) or 38 μg/L (5% required inhibition); 3) Approach 3: 338 μg/L (without serum half-life correction) or 573 μg/L (with serum half-life correction); 4) Approach 4: 737 μg/L (without serum half-life correction) or 973 μg/L (with serum half-life correction) for 50% required inhibition; 375 μg/L (without half-life) or 735 μg/L (with half-life) for 5% required inhibition. Where water is not the sole route of exposure and perchlorate is not the sole goitrogen acting through the sodium-iodide symporter mechanism, the results of Approaches 3 and 4 can be applied to mixtures of compounds that produce these values as PECs. Results of the analysis suggest that compound-by-compound regulatory limits may be better dealt with through a change to risk-based management strategies that are built around the concept of focusing limited regulatory resources on the main contributors to risks induced by the mechanism considered here.
Absorption of Microwaves in Low Intensity Eucalyptus Litter Fire  [PDF]
Douglas Letsholathebe, Kgakgamatso Mphale
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2015.78023
Abstract: A fuel bed was constructed where various vegetation species could be used as combustion fuel. The fuel bed was equipped with a thermocouple to measure fire temperature and a two-port automatic network analyser to measure microwave scattering parameters in flame medium. The parameters are then used to determine microwave propagation characteristics in fire. The measurements have implications on radio wave communication during wildfire suppression and in remote sensing. The attenuation data also provide an estimation of vegetation fire ionisation and conductivity. Eucalyptus litter fire with a maximum flame temperature of 976 K was set on the fuel bed and X-band microwaves (7.00 - 9.50 GHz) were caused to propagate through the flame. Attenuation of 0.35 - 0.90 dB was measured for microwaves in the frequency range. For the low intensity fire, conductivity was measured to range from 0.00021 - 0.00055 mho/m and electron density was to be the range of 1.83 - 2.24 × 1015 m-3.
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