In Aristotle’s On the Soul he considers and refutes two versions of the harmonia theory of the soul’s relation to the body. According to the harmonia theory, the soul is to the body what the tuning of a musical instrument is to its material parts. Though he believes himself to have entirely dismissed the view, he has not. I argue that Aristotle’s hylomorphic account is, in fact, an instance of the harmonia theory.
The philosopher Eugene Gendlin argues that a distinctive
mode of reasoning, called experiencing,
is necessary for working through personally salient problems such as are
encountered in psychotherapy. We review supporting empirical support. It
is now possible to consider Gendlin’s ideas from a neurological perspective.
Work directed at understanding the neurological underpinnings of
consciousness and self-related processing, as well as comparative neuroanatomical
work, are all consistent with and elucidated by Gendlin’s experiencing
construct. We argue from this data that the human mind is composed of three
interacting systems that are unique to or enhanced in humans compared to other
primates. Two are dedicated to “hot and cold” cognition. The most important,
least well-studied third system is dedicated to mediating between these forms
of cognition. We outline how interactions between these systems define
different forms of psychopathology and what they suggest about the structure of
the human mind.
Advanced biological information such as computational biology, in vitro transformation assays, genome pathway analysis, genotoxicity assays, proteomics, gene expression, cell signaling disruption and hormone receptors offer the poten- tial for significant improvements in the ability of regulatory agencies to consider the risks of the thousands of compounds—and mixtures of compounds—currently unexamined. While the science for performing the assays underlying such information is developing rapidly, there is significantly less understanding of the rationality of using these data in specific decision problems. This paper explores these issues of rationality, identifying the issues of rationality that remain to be developed for applications in regulatory risk assessment, and providing a draft decision framework for these applications. The conclusion is that these rapid, high throughput methods hold the potential to significantly improve the protection of public health through better understanding of risks from compounds and mixtures, but incorporating them into existing risk assessment methodologies requires improvements in understanding the reliability and rates of Type I and Type II errors for specific applications.
Recent biodiversity research in the Western Amazon has emphasized the linkages among road construction, deforestation and loss of indigenous lands. Many observers have concluded that hydrocarbon production inevitably means destruction of forests and expropriation of native territory. Yet evidence from the eastern lowlands of Ecuador (known as the Oriente) shows that oil can be developed without roads or harmful impacts. The Oriente also provides another contrasting case: in areas where no oil was discovered, the government often built roads to support its agricultural colonization efforts. In these areas, a great deal of deforestation and indigenous displacement occurred. Such evidence suggests that a different set of agrarian and environmental policies might permit oil activity without loss of rain forest or indigenous territory.