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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 135831 matches for " Douglas V. Faller "
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Transcription Regulation by Class III Histone Deacetylases (HDACs)—Sirtuins
Yan Dai and Douglas V. Faller
Translational Oncogenomics , 2012,
Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases (Class III HDACs). Recently, Sirtuins have been shown to play important roles, both direct and indirect, in transcriptional regulation. This transcriptional control, through incorporation of Sirtuins into transcription complexes and deacetylation of histones locally at gene promoters, or direct interaction with speci c transcription factors, is central to the participation of Sirtuins in multiple diverse processes, including aging, apoptosis, hormone responses, stress tolerance, differentiation, metabolism and development. Here we review the contribution of the Sirtuin family, at multiple molecular levels, to transcriptional regulation.
Roles of Prohibitin in Growth Control and Tumor Suppression in Human Cancers
Sheng Wang and Douglas V. Faller
Translational Oncogenomics , 2012,
Abstract: Tumor formation results from alterations in the normal control of cell proliferation. In the past decade, much attention in cancer research has been focused on the function of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Prohibitin is a potential tumor suppressor which was originally identifi ed because of its anti-proliferative activities. Subsequent investigations led to the discovery of prohibitin mutations in sporadic breast cancers. Recent studies established that prohibitin directly regulates E2F-mediated transcription and growth suppression Prohibitin further attracted the attention of the translational cancer research community when it was recently connected to the regulation of estrogen receptor and androgen receptor activity. Prohibitin was shown to be required for the growth suppression of breast cancer cells induced by estrogen antagonists, and for therapeutic responses to androgen antagonists in prostate cancer. Through the application of new molecular technologies, additional novel functions of prohibitin have been revealed, demonstrating diverse and essential roles of this highly-conserved protein in regulating cell growth.
Transcription Regulation by Class III Histone Deacetylases (HDACs)—Sirtuins
Yan Dai,Douglas V. Faller
Translational Oncogenomics , 2008,
Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases (Class III HDACs). Recently, Sirtuins have been shown to play important roles, both direct and indirect, in transcriptional regulation. This transcriptional control, through incorporation of Sirtuins into transcription complexes and deacetylation of histones locally at gene promoters, or direct interaction with speci c transcription factors, is central to the participation of Sirtuins in multiple diverse processes, including aging, apoptosis, hormone responses, stress tolerance, differentiation, metabolism and development. Here we review the contribution of the Sirtuin family, at multiple molecular levels, to transcriptional regulation.
Roles of Prohibitin in Growth Control and Tumor Suppression in Human Cancers
Sheng Wang,Douglas V. Faller
Translational Oncogenomics , 2008,
Abstract: Tumor formation results from alterations in the normal control of cell proliferation. In the past decade, much attention in cancer research has been focused on the function of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Prohibitin is a potential tumor suppressor which was originally identifi ed because of its anti-proliferative activities. Subsequent investigations led to the discovery of prohibitin mutations in sporadic breast cancers. Recent studies established that prohibitin directly regulates E2F-mediated transcription and growth suppression Prohibitin further attracted the attention of the translational cancer research community when it was recently connected to the regulation of estrogen receptor and androgen receptor activity. Prohibitin was shown to be required for the growth suppression of breast cancer cells induced by estrogen antagonists, and for therapeutic responses to androgen antagonists in prostate cancer. Through the application of new molecular technologies, additional novel functions of prohibitin have been revealed, demonstrating diverse and essential roles of this highly-conserved protein in regulating cell growth.
Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies
Sajal K. Ghosh,Susan P. Perrine,Douglas V. Faller
Advances in Virology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/509296
Abstract: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies. 1. Introduction Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is ubiquitous in human populations worldwide. EBV infection in children and adolescents usually leads to a self-limiting lytic infection, designated as infectious mononucleosis (IM) [1, 2]. However, in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) [3, 4], EBV infections often progress unchecked and are lethal. EBV is invariably associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) [5], African Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) [6], posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) [7–10], and less often with a number of other human malignancies such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HD) [11], and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL). In addition, EBV is found in a fraction of gastric carcinomas [12, 13] and carcinomas of the breast [14–16]. Although EBV has been identified in these latter tumors, it remains controversial whether EBV is causally-related to their development. Nonetheless, multiple studies have clearly demonstrated that the presence of EBV in these tumors confers a poorer prognosis [17–22]. In the mid-Eighties, the technique of random cleavage of the terminal repeat region of the EBV genome was employed as a method of identifying clonality of the virus episome population in infected
Aberrant Cytoplasm Localization and Protein Stability of SIRT1 is Regulated by PI3K/IGF-1R Signaling in Human Cancer Cells
Vanessa Byles, Laura K. Chmilewski, Joyce Wang, Lijia Zhu, Lora W. Forman, Douglas V. Faller, Yan Dai
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: SIRT1, an NAD-dependent histone/protein deacetylase, has classically been thought of as a nuclear protein. In this study, we demonstrate that SIRT1 is mainly localized in the nucleus of normal cells, but is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm of the cancer / transformed cells we tested. We found this predominant cytoplasmic localization of SIRT1 is regulated by elevated mitotic activity and PI3K/IGF-1R signaling in cancer cells. We show that aberrant cytoplasmic localization of SIRT1 is due to increased protein stability and is regulated by PI3K/IGF-1R signaling. In addition, we determined that SIRT1 is required for PI3K-mediated cancer cell growth. Our study represents the first identification that aberrant cytoplasm localization is one of the specific alternations to SIRT1 that occur in cancer cells, and PI3K/IGF-1R signaling plays an important role in the regulation of cytoplasmic SIRT1 stability. Our findings suggest that the over-expressed cytoplasmic SIRT1 in cancer cells may greatly contribute to its cancer-specific function by working downstream of the PI3K/IGF-1R signaling pathway.
A Simple Pendulum Determination of the Gravitational Constant
Harold V. Parks,James E. Faller
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.110801
Abstract: We determined the Newtonian Constant of Gravitation G by interferometrically measuring the change in spacing between two free-hanging pendulum masses caused by the gravitational field from large tungsten source masses. We find a value for G of (6.672 34 +/- 0.000 14) x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2. This value is in good agreement with the 1986 Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) value of (6.672 59 +/- 0.000 85) x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2 [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1121 (1987)] but differs from some more recent determinations as well as the latest CODATA recommendation of (6.674 28 +/- 0.000 67) x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2 [Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 633 (2008)].
Seguridad contra incendios en edificios con atrio
Faller, George
Informes de la Construccion , 2003,
Abstract: Atria are commonly used in the design of buildings to improve the environment of the space. Nevertheless the current Spanish codes do not address the fire safety concerns associated with this type of building. A new draft code, the "Código Técnico de la Edificación .. (CTE), proposes a series of measures to address the issue of fire safety in atria, based on the approach adopted by the British atrium codeo. In order to simplify the application of the measures, buildings are classified according to use and appropriate measures are presented in a tabulated format. As could be expected from such an approach, the simplification of the pro cess imposes limits on design flexibility, and given a set of prescribed solutions, the designer would often not be able to achieve the ideal building form. This article discusses the limits of a prescriptive approach to fire safety in buildings with atria , and describes an alternative approach based on fire engineering principles that offers the architect more design flexibilty . Cada vez se utilizan más atrios para mejorar el ambiente dentro de los edificios. Sin embargo, las normativas actualmente vigentes en Espa a no ofrecen soluciones para abordar los riesgos -en caso de incendio- en este tipo de edificios. El borrador del nuevo Código Técnico de la Edificación (CTE) plantea una serie de medidas de seguridad contra incendios en atrios, basada en el planteamiento seguido en por las normas británicas. Para simplificar la aplicación de dichas medidas, se fijan algunas características del edificio y se ofrecen soluciones basadas en medidas obtenidas de una tabla . Como es era de esperar con este tipo de planteamiento, la facilidad de aplicación va en detrimento de la flexibilidad, y resulta que con las soluciones prescritas el dise ador no puede conseguir la forma deseada en el edificio. Este artículo trata de ilustrar las restricciones que conllevan un planteamiento prescriptivo para la seguridad contra incendios en atrios. y plantea una alternativa basada en la ingeniería contra incendios, la cual ofrecerá más flexibilidad de dise o al arquitecto.
Effective Field Theory of Gravity: Leading Quantum Gravitational Corrections to Newtons and Coulombs Law
Sven Faller
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.77.124039
Abstract: In this paper we consider general relativity and its combination with scalar quantum electrodynamics (QED) as an effective quantum field theory at energies well below the Planck scale. This enables us to compute the one-loop quantum corrections to the Newton and Coulomb potential induced by the combination of graviton and photon fluctuations. We derive the relevant Feynman rules and compute the nonanalytical contributions to the one-loop scattering matrix for charged scalars in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, we derive the post-Newtonian corrections of order $Gm/\text c^2 r$ from general relativity and the genuine quantum corrections of order $G\hbar/\text c^3 r^2$.
Structure and mobility of cyclohexane as a solvent for Trans-Polyisoprene
Roland Faller
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1039/b111437a
Abstract: Solutions of {\it trans}$-$polyisoprene in cyclohexane are investigated in atomistic detail at different compositions at two different temperatures. We investigate the influence of polymer concentration on the dynamics of the solvent molecules and the structure of the solvation shell. The double bonds along the polymer backbone are preferentially approached by the solvent molecules. The mobility of cyclohexane molecules decreases with increasing polymer concentration at ambient conditions. The reorientation of molecules becomes more anisotropic with concentration as the polymer hinders the reorientation of the molecular plane. At elevated temperatures the influence of the polymer is weaker and the reorientation of the solvent is more isotropic. Additionally, a fast and efficient way to set up atomistic simulations is shown in detail in which the initial simulations increase in length and in the simulation time-step. The excess energy from initial overlaps is removed by resetting the velocities at regular intervals.
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