Abstract:
In Abelian theories of monopoles the magnetic charge is required to be enormous. Using the electric-magnetic duality of electromagnetism it is argued that the existence of such a large, non-perturbative magnetic coupling should lead to a phase transition where magnetic charge is permanently confined and the photon becomes massive. The apparent masslessness of the photon could then be used as an argument against the existence of such a large, non-perturbative magnetic charge. Finally it is shown that even in the presence of this dynamical mass generation the Cabbibo-Ferrari formulation of magnetic charge gives a consistent theory.

Abstract:
Several exact, cylindrically symmetric solutions to Einstein's vacuum equations are given. These solutions were found using the connection between Yang-Mills theory and general relativity. Taking known solutions of the Yang-Mills equations (e.g. the topological BPS monopole solutions) it is possible to construct exact solutions to the general relativistic field equations. Although the general relativistic solutions were found starting from known solutions of Yang-Mills theory they have different physical characteristics.

Abstract:
By casting the Yang-Mills-Higgs equations of an SU(2) theory in the form of the Ernst equations of general relativity, it is shown how the known exact solutions of general relativity can be used to give similiar solutions for Yang-Mills theory. Thus all the known exact solutions of general relativity with axial symmetry (e.g. the Kerr metric, the Tomimatsu-Sato metric) have Yang-Mills equivalents. In this paper we only examine in detail the Kerr-like solution. It will be seen that this solution has surfaces where the gauge and scalar fields become infinite, which correspond to the infinite redshift surfaces of the normal Kerr solution. It is speculated that this feature may be connected with the confinement mechanism since any particle which carries an SU(2) color charge would tend to become trapped once it passes these surfaces. Unlike the Kerr solution, our solution apparently does not have any intrinsic angular momentum, but rather appears to give the non-Abelian field configuration associated with concentric shells of color charge.

Abstract:
Using the result that an electric charge - magnetic charge system carries an internal field angular momentum of $e g / 4 \pi$ we arrive at two restrictions on magnetic monopoles via the requirement of angular momentum quantization and/or conservation. First we show that magnetic charge should scale in the opposite way from electric charge. Second we show that free, unconfined monopoles seem to be inconsistent when one considers a magnetic charge in the vicinity of more than one electric charge.

Abstract:
A theory containing both electric and magnetic charges is formulated using two vector potentials, $A_{\mu}$ and $C_{\mu}$. This has the aesthetic advantage of treating electric and magnetic charges both as gauge charges, but it has the experimental disadvantage of introducing a second massless gauge boson (the ``magnetic'' photon) which is not observed. This problem is dealt with by using the Higgs mechanism to give a mass to one of the gauge bosons while the other remains massless. This effectively ``hides'' the magnetic charge, and the symmetry associated with it, when one is at an energy scale far enough removed from the scale of the symmetry breaking.

Abstract:
By treating magnetic charge as a gauge symmetry through the introduction of a ``magnetic'' pseudo four-vector potential, it is shown that it is possible, using the 't Hooft-Polyakov construction, to obtain a topological electric charge. The mass of this electrically charged particle is found to be on the order of {1 / 137} M_W as opposed to the much larger mass (on the order of 137 M_W) of the magnetic soliton. Some model building possibilities are discussed.

Abstract:
Drawing on the parallel between general relativity and Yang-Mills theory we obtain an exact Schwarzschild-like solution for SU(2) gauge fields coupled to a massless scalar field. Pushing the analogy further we speculate that this classical solution to the Yang-Mills equations shows confinement in the same way that particles become confined once they pass the event horizon of the Schwarzschild solution. Two special cases of the solution are considered.

Abstract:
In this paper we extend our previously discovered exact solution for an SU(2) gauge theory coupled to a massless, non-interacting scalar field, to the general group SU(N+1). Using the first-order formalism of Bogomolny, an exact, spherically symmetric solution for the gauge and scalar fields is found. This solution is similiar to the Schwarzschild solution of general relativity, in that the gauge and scalar fields become infinite at a radius, $r_0 = K$, from the origin. It is speculated that this may be the confinement mechanism that has long been sought for in non-Abelian gauge theories, since any particle which carries the SU(N+1) charge would become permanently trapped once it entered the region $r < r_0$. The energy of the field configuration of this solution is calculated.

Abstract:
Three dyon solutions to the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system are presented. These solutions are obtained from the BPS dyon by allowing the gauge fields to be complex, or by letting the free parameter of the BPS solution become imaginary. In all cases however the physically measurable quantities connected with these new solutions are entirely real. Although the new solutions are mathematically simple variations of the BPS solution, they have one or more physically distinct characteristics.

Abstract:
The Dirac approach to include magnetic charge in Maxwell's equations places the magnetic charge at the end of a string on which the the fields of the theory develop a singularity. In this paper an alternative formulation of classical electromagnetism with magnetic and electric charge is given by introducing a second pseudo four-vector potential, C_mu, in addition to the usual four- vector potential, A_mu. This avoids the use of singular, non-local variables (i.e. Dirac strings) in electrodynamics with magnetic charge, and it makes the treatment of electric and magentic charge more symmetric, since both charges are now gauge charges.