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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 308531 matches for " Douglas J. Young "
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Does Aristotle Refute the Harmonia Theory of the Soul?  [PDF]
Douglas J. Young
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31008

In Aristotle’s On the Soul he considers and refutes two versions of the harmonia theory of the soul’s relation to the body. According to the harmonia theory, the soul is to the body what the tuning of a musical instrument is to its material parts. Though he believes himself to have entirely dismissed the view, he has not. I argue that Aristotle’s hylomorphic account is, in fact, an instance of the harmonia theory.

Night Shift: Expansion of Temporal Niche Use Following Reductions in Predator Density
Douglas J. McCauley, Eva Hoffmann, Hillary S. Young, Fiorenza Micheli
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038871
Abstract: Predation shapes many fundamental aspects of ecology. Uncertainty remains, however, about whether predators can influence patterns of temporal niche construction at ecologically relevant timescales. Partitioning of time is an important mechanism by which prey avoid interactions with predators. However, the traits that control a prey organism's capacity to operate during a particular portion of the diel cycle are diverse and complex. Thus, diel prey niches are often assumed to be relatively unlikely to respond to changes in predation risk at short timescales. Here we present evidence to the contrary. We report results that suggest that the anthropogenic depletion of daytime active predators (species that are either diurnal or cathemeral) in a coral reef ecosystem is associated with rapid temporal niche expansions in a multi-species assemblage of nocturnal prey fishes. Diurnal comparisons of nocturnal prey fish abundance in predator rich and predator depleted reefs at two atolls revealed that nocturnal fish were approximately six (biomass) and eight (density) times more common during the day on predator depleted reefs. Amongst these, the prey species that likely were the most specialized for nocturnal living, and thus the most vulnerable to predation (i.e. those with greatest eye size to body length ratio), showed the strongest diurnal increases at sites where daytime active predators were rare. While we were unable to determine whether these observed increases in diurnal abundance by nocturnal prey were the result of a numerical or behavioral response, either effect could be ecologically significant. These results raise the possibility that predation may play an important role in regulating the partitioning of time by prey and that anthropogenic depletions of predators may be capable of causing rapid changes to key properties of temporal community architecture.
Comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genomes Reveals Frequent Deletions in a 20 kb Variable Region in Clinical Isolates
Timothy B. L. Ho,Brian D. Robertson,G. Michael Taylor,Rory J. Shaw,Douglas B. Young
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2000, DOI: 10.1002/1097-0061(200012)17:4<272::aid-yea48>3.0.co;2-2
Abstract: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is associated with a remarkably low level of structural gene polymorphism. As part of a search for alternative forms of genetic variation that may act as a source of biological diversity in M. tuberculosis, we have identified a region of the genome that is highly variable amongst a panel of unrelated clinical isolates. Fifteen of 24 isolates examined contained one or more copies of the M. tuberculosis-specific IS6110 insertion element within this 20 kb variable region. In nine of the isolates, including the laboratory-passaged strain H37Rv, genomic deletions were identified, resulting in loss of between two and 13 genes. In each case, deletions were associated with the presence of a copy of the IS6110 element. Absence of flanking tri- or tetra-nucleotide repeats identified homologous recombination between adjacent IS6110 elements as the most likely mechanism of the deletion events. IS6110 insertion into hot-spots within the genome of M. tuberculosis provides a mechanism for generation of genetic diversity involving a high frequency of insertions and deletions.
Dietary Salt Levels Affect Salt Preference and Learning in Larval Drosophila
Cheryl Russell, Jan Wessnitzer, Joanna M. Young, J. Douglas Armstrong, Barbara Webb
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020100
Abstract: Drosophila larvae change from exhibiting attraction to aversion as the concentration of salt in a substrate is increased. However, some aversive concentrations appear to act as positive reinforcers, increasing attraction to an odour with which they have been paired. We test whether this surprising dissociation between the unconditioned and conditioned response depends on the larvae's experience of salt concentration in their food. We find that although the point at which a NaCl concentration becomes aversive shifts with different rearing experience, the dissociation remains evident. Testing larvae using a substrate 0.025M above the NaCl concentration on which the larvae were reared consistently results in aversive choice behaviour but appetitive reinforcement effects.
Isospin Multiplet Structure in Ultra--Heavy Fermion Bound States
Pankaj Jain,Alan J. Sommerer,Douglas W. McKay,J. R. Spence,J. P. Vary,Bing--Lin Young
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.49.2514
Abstract: The coupled Bethe--Salpeter bound state equations for a $Q\bar Q$ system, where $Q=(U,D)$ is a degenerate, fourth generation, super--heavy quark doublet, are solved in several ladder approximation models. The exchanges of gluon, Higgs and Goldstone modes in the standard model are calculated in the ultra--heavy quark limit where weak $\gamma, W^\pm$ and $Z^0$ contributions are negligible. A natural $I=0$ and $I=1$ multiplet pattern is found, with large splittings occuring between the different weak iso--spin states when $M_Q$, the quark masses, are larger than values in the range $0.4 TeV
Natural Killer Cell Cytokine Response to M. bovis BCG Is Associated with Inhibited Proliferation, Increased Apoptosis and Ultimate Depletion of NKp44+CD56bright Cells
Damien Portevin, Douglas Young
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068864
Abstract: Mycobacterium bovis BCG, a live attenuated strain of M. bovis initially developed as a vaccine against tuberculosis, is also used as an adjuvant for immunotherapy of cancers and for treatment of parasitic infections. The underlying mechanisms are thought to rely on its immunomodulatory properties including the recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells. In that context, we aimed to study the impact of M. bovis BCG on NK cell functions. We looked at cytotoxicity, cytokine production, proliferation and cell survival of purified human NK cells following exposure to single live particles of mycobacteria. We found that M. bovis BCG mediates apoptosis of NK cells only in the context of IL-2 stimulation during which CD56bright NK cells are releasing IFN-γ in response to mycobacteria. We found that the presence of mycobacteria prevented the IL-2 induced proliferation and surface expression of NKp44 receptor by the CD56bright population. In summary, we observed that M. bovis BCG is modulating the functions of CD56bright NK cells to drive this subset to produce IFN-γ before subsequent programmed cell death. Therefore, IFN-γ production by CD56bright cells constitutes the main effector mechanism of NK cells that would contribute to the benefits observed for M. bovis BCG as an immunotherapeutic agent.
Use of Short Tandem Repeat Sequences to Study Mycobacterium leprae in Leprosy Patients in Malawi and India
Saroj K. Young,Jorg M. Ponnighaus,Suman Jain,Sebastian Lucas,Sujai Suneetha,Diana N. J. Lockwood,Douglas B. Young,Paul E. M. Fine
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000214
Abstract: Background Inadequate understanding of the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae makes it difficult to predict the impact of leprosy control interventions. Genotypic tests that allow tracking of individual bacterial strains would strengthen epidemiological studies and contribute to our understanding of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping assays based on variation in the copy number of short tandem repeat sequences were applied to biopsies collected in population-based epidemiological studies of leprosy in northern Malawi, and from members of multi-case households in Hyderabad, India. In the Malawi series, considerable genotypic variability was observed between patients, and also within patients, when isolates were collected at different times or from different tissues. Less within-patient variability was observed when isolates were collected from similar tissues at the same time. Less genotypic variability was noted amongst the closely related Indian patients than in the Malawi series. Conclusions/Significance Lineages of M. leprae undergo changes in their pattern of short tandem repeat sequences over time. Genetic divergence is particularly likely between bacilli inhabiting different (e.g., skin and nerve) tissues. Such variability makes short tandem repeat sequences unsuitable as a general tool for population-based strain typing of M. leprae, or for distinguishing relapse from reinfection. Careful use of these markers may provide insights into the development of disease within individuals and for tracking of short transmission chains.
Effects of Spatial Subsidies and Habitat Structure on the Foraging Ecology and Size of Geckos
Amy A. Briggs, Hillary S. Young, Douglas J. McCauley, Stacie A. Hathaway, Rodolfo Dirzo, Robert N. Fisher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041364
Abstract: While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies—the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries—can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp.) that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated) forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ strongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.
Breast Cancer Stem Cell-Like Cells Are More Sensitive to Ionizing Radiation than Non-Stem Cells: Role of ATM
Seog-Young Kim, Juong G. Rhee, Xinxin Song, Edward V. Prochownik, Douglas R. Spitz, Yong J. Lee
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050423
Abstract: There are contradictory observations about the different radiosensitivities of cancer stem cells and cancer non-stem cells. To resolve these contradictory observations, we studied radiosensitivities by employing breast cancer stem cell (CSC)-like MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB453 cells as well as their corresponding non-stem cells. CSC-like cells proliferate without differentiating and have characteristics of tumor-initiating cells [1]. These cells were exposed to γ-rays (1.25–8.75 Gy) and survival curves were determined by colony formation. A final slope, D0, of the survival curve for each cell line was determined to measure radiosensitivity. The D0 of CSC-like and non-stem MDA-MB-453 cells were 1.16 Gy and 1.55 Gy, respectively. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells (0.94 Gy vs. 1.56 Gy). After determination of radiosensitivity, we investigated intrinsic cellular determinants which influence radiosensitivity including cell cycle distribution, free-radical scavengers and DNA repair. We observed that even though cell cycle status and antioxidant content may contribute to differential radiosensitivity, differential DNA repair capacity may be a greater determinant of radiosensitivity. Unlike non-stem cells, CSC-like cells have little/no sublethal damage repair, a low intracellular level of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and delay of γ-H2AX foci removal (DNA strand break repair). These results suggest that low DNA repair capacity is responsible for the high radiosensitivity of these CSC-like cells.
Underflight calibration of SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS with EUNIS-07
Tongjiang Wang,Roger J. Thomas,Jeffrey W. Brosius,Peter R. Young,Douglas M. Rabin,Joseph M. Davila,Giulio Del Zanna
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/197/2/32
Abstract: Flights of Goddard Space Flight Center's Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket in 2006 and 2007 provided updated radiometric calibrations for SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS. EUNIS carried two independent imaging spectrographs covering wavebands of 300-370 A in first order and 170-205 A in second order. After each flight, end-to-end radiometric calibrations of the rocket payload were carried out in the same facility used for pre-launch calibrations of CDS and EIS. During the 2007 flight, EUNIS, SOHO CDS and Hinode EIS observed the same solar locations, allowing the EUNIS calibrations to be directly applied to both CDS and EIS. The measured CDS NIS 1 line intensities calibrated with the standard (version 4) responsivities with the standard long-term corrections are found to be too low by a factor of 1.5 due to the decrease in responsivity. The EIS calibration update is performed in two ways. One is using the direct calibration transfer of the calibrated EUNIS-07 short wavelength (SW) channel. The other is using the insensitive line pairs, in which one member was observed by EUNIS-07 long wavelength (LW) channel and the other by EIS in either LW or SW waveband. Measurements from both methods are in good agreement, and confirm (within the measurement uncertainties) the EIS responsivity measured directly before the instrument's launch. The measurements also suggest that the EIS responsivity decreased by a factor of about 1.2 after the first year of operation. The shape of the EIS SW response curve obtained by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the one measured in laboratory prior to launch. The absolute value of the quiet-Sun He II 304 A intensity measured by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the radiance measured by CDS NIS in quiet regions near the disk center and the solar minimum irradiance obtained by CDS NIS and SDO/EVE recently.
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