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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466213 matches for " Douglas A. Swartz "
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Ultraluminous X-ray Sources in Interacting Galaxies
Douglas A. Swartz
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: I give a brief review of how X-rays from nearby galaxies are used as direct tracers of recent star formation. This leads to the conclusion that it is the most luminous point-like sources that are associated with star formation and that the majority of these are high-mass X-ray binaries.I then discuss a recent study that shows that ULXs are preferentially found in regions as young as or younger than typical HII regions in their host galaxies. Finally, I describe a new study that attempts to determine the maximum luminosity of ULXs in the local universe by searching for them in interacting galaxies where the star formation rate is high.
X-Ray Emission from the Supergiant Shell in IC 2574
Mihoko Yukita,Douglas A. Swartz
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/750/1/L16
Abstract: The M81 group member dwarf galaxy IC 2574 hosts a supergiant shell of current and recent star-formation activity surrounding a 1000 x 500 pc hole in the ambient Hi gas distribution. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging observations reveal a luminous, L_x ~ 6.5 x 10^{38} erg/s in the 0.3 - 8.0 keV band, point-like source within the hole but offset from its center and fainter diffuse emission extending throughout and beyond the hole. The star formation history at the location of the point source indicates a burst of star formation beginning ~25 Myr ago and currently weakening and there is a young nearby star cluster, at least 5 Myr old, bracketing the likely age of the X-ray source at between 5 and ~25 Myr. The source is thus likely a bright high-mass X-ray binary --- either a neutron star or black hole accreting from an early B star undergoing thermal-timescale mass transfer through Roche lobe overflow. The properties of the residual diffuse X-ray emission are consistent with those expected from hot gas associated with the recent star-formation activity in the region.
Ultraluminous X-ray Source Correlations with Star-Forming Regions
Douglas A. Swartz,Allyn F. Tennant,Roberto Soria
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/703/1/159
Abstract: Maps of low-inclination nearby galaxies in Sloan Digitized Sky Survey u-g, g-r and r-i colors are used to determine whether Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are predominantly associated with star-forming regions of their host galaxies. An empirical selection criterion is derived from colors of HII regions in M81 and M101 that differentiates between the young, blue stellar component and the older disk and bulge population. This criterion is applied to a sample of 58 galaxies of Hubble type S0 and later and verified through an application of Fisher's linear discriminant analysis. It is found that 60% (49%) of ULXs in optically-bright environments are within regions blueward of their host galaxy's HII regions compared to only 27% (0%) of a control sample according to the empirical (Fisher) criterion. This is an excess of 3-sigma above the 32% (27%) expected if the ULXs were randomly distributed within their galactic hosts. This indicates a ULX preference for young, approximately <10 Myr, OB associations. However, none of the ULX environments have the morphology and optical brightness suggestive of a massive young super star cluster though several are in extended or crowded star-forming (blue) environments that may contain clusters unresolved by Sloan imaging. Ten of the 12 ULX candidates with estimated X-ray luminosities in excess of 3e39 erg/s are equally divided among the group of ULX environments redward of HII regions and the group of optically faint regions. This likely indicates that the brightest ULXs turn on at a time somewhat later than typical of HII regions; say 10-20 Myr after star formation has ended. This would be consistent with the onset of an accretion phase as the donor star ascends the giant branch if the donor is a <20 solar-mass star.
An X-ray View of Star Formation in the Central 3 kpc of NGC 2403
Mihoko Yukita,Douglas A. Swartz,Allyn F. Tennant,Roberto Soria
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/139/3/1066
Abstract: Archival Chandra observations are used to study the X-ray emission associated with star formation in the central region of the nearby SAB(s)cd galaxy NGC 2403. The distribution of X-ray emission is compared to the morphology visible at other wavelengths using complementary Spitzer, GALEX, and ground-based Halpha imagery. In general, the brightest extended X-ray emission is associated with HII regions and to other star-forming structures but is more pervasive; existing also in regions devoid of strong Halpha and UV emission. This X-ray emission has the spectral properties of diffuse hot gas (kT ~ 0.2keV) whose likely origin is in gas shock-heated by stellar winds and supernovae with < 20% coming from faint unresolved X-ray point sources. This hot gas may be slowly-cooling extra-planar remnants of past outflow events, or a disk component that either lingers after local star formation activity has ended or that has vented from active star-forming regions into a porous interstellar medium.
Gamma-Ray Transfer and Energy Deposition in Supernovae
Douglas A. Swartz,Peter G. Sutherland,Robert P. Harkness
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1086/175834
Abstract: Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the \Ni and \Co radioactive decay \GR energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, \KG $\sim (0.06 \pm 0.01)Y_e$ cm$^2$ g$^{-1}$, where $Y_e$ is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of \GRs with the cool supernova gas and the local \GR energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the \GR\ interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of \KG on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of \KG applies during optically thick conditions when individual \GRs undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere \te \LA 1. Our results quantitatively confirm that the quick and efficient solution to the gray transfer problem provides an accurate representation of \GR energy deposition for a broad range of supernova conditions.
A Study of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources from the Chandra Archive of Galaxies
Douglas A. Swartz,Kajal K. Ghosh,Allyn F. Tennant
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: The more than 80 nearby galaxies imaged with the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer have been analyzed in a search for Ultra-Luminous X-ray (ULX) sources. The sample of galaxies span the range of Hubble morphological types and include galaxies of various mass, gas content, and dynamical state. X-ray characteristics of the resulting ensemble of ULX candidates are reported and correlations with properties of the host galaxies are presented.
A Complete Sample of ULX Host Galaxies
Douglas A. Swartz,Roberto Soria,Allyn F. Tennant,Mihoko Yukita
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/1/49
Abstract: One hundred seven ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) sources with 0.3-10.0 keV luminosities in excess of 1e39 erg/s are identified in a complete sample of 127 nearby galaxies. The sample includes all galaxies within 14.5 Mpc above the completeness limits of both the Uppsala Galaxy Catalog and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite survey. The galaxy sample spans all Hubble types, a four decade range in mass and in star-formation rate. ULXs are detected in this sample at rates of one per 3.2e10 solar mass, one per 0.5 solar mass/year star-formation rate, and one per 57 cubic Mpc corresponding to a luminosity density of ~2e37 erg/s/Mpc3. At these rates we estimate as many as 19 additional ULXs remain undetected in fainter dwarf galaxies within the survey volume. An estimated 14 or 13%, of the 107 ULX candidates are expected to be background sources. The differential ULX luminosity function shows a power law slope of -1.2 to -2.0 with an exponential cutoff at 2e40 erg/s with precise values depending on the model and on whether the ULX luminosities are estimated from their observed numbers of counts or, for a subset of candidates, from their spectral shapes. Extrapolating the observed luminosity function predicts at most one very luminous ULX, L~1e41 erg/s, within a distance as small as 100 Mpc. The luminosity distribution of ULXs within the local universe cannot account for the recent claims of luminosities in excess of 2e41 erg/s requiring a new population class to explain these extreme objects.
ChAInGeS: The Chandra Arp Interacting Galaxies Survey
Beverly J. Smith,Douglas A. Swartz,Olivia Miller,Jacob A. Burleson,Michael A. Nowak,Curtis Struck
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/143/6/144
Abstract: We have conducted a statistical analysis of the ultra-luminous X-ray point sources (ULXs; L(X) >= 10^39 erg/s) in a sample of galaxies selected from the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. We find a possible enhancement of a factor of ~2-4 in the number of ULXs per blue luminosity for the strongly interacting subset. Such an enhancement would be expected if ULX production is related to star formation, as interacting galaxies tend to have enhanced star formation rates on average. For most of the Arp galaxies in our sample, the total number of ULXs compared to the far-infrared luminosity is consistent with values found earlier for spiral galaxies. This suggests that for these galaxies, ULXs trace recent star formation. However, for the most infrared-luminous galaxies, we find a deficiency of ULXs compared to the infrared luminosity. For these very infrared-luminous galaxies, AGNs may contribute to powering the far-infrared; alternatively, ULXs may be highly obscured in the X-ray in these galaxies and therefore not detected by these Chandra observations. We determined local UV/optical colors within the galaxies in the vicinity of the candidate ULXs using GALEX UV and SDSS optical images. In most cases, the distributions of colors are similar to the global colors of interacting galaxies. However, the u - g and r - i colors at the ULX locations tend to be bluer on average than these global colors, suggesting that ULXs are preferentially found in regions with young stellar populations. In the Arp sample there is a possible enhancement of a factor of ~2 - 5 in the fraction of galactic nuclei that are X-ray bright compared to more normal spirals.
Statistical Uncertainties in Temperature Diagnostics for Hot Coronal Plasma Using the ASCA SIS
Douglas A. Swartz,S. L. O'Dell,M. E. Sulkanen,A. F. Tennant
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1086/187616
Abstract: Statistical uncertainties in determining the temperatures of hot (0.5 keV to 10 keV) coronal plasmas are investigated. The statistical precision of various spectral temperature diagnostics is established by analyzing synthetic ASCA Solid-state Imaging Spectrometer (SIS) CCD spectra. The diagnostics considered are the ratio of hydrogen-like to helium-like line complexes of $Z\ge14$ elements, line-free portions of the continuum, and the entire spectrum. While fits to the entire spectrum yield the highest statistical precision, it is argued that fits to the line-free continuum are less susceptible to atomic data uncertainties but lead to a modest increase in statistical uncertainty over full spectral fits. Temperatures deduced from line ratios can have similar accuracy but only over a narrow range of temperatures. Convenient estimates of statistical accuracies for the various temperature diagnostics are provided which may be used in planning ASCA SIS observations.
Hot Diffuse Emission in the Nuclear Starburst Region of NGC 2903
Mihoko Yukita,Douglas A. Swartz,Allyn F. Tennant,Roberto Soria,Jimmy A. Irwin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/758/2/105
Abstract: (Abridged) We present a deep Chandra observation of the late-type barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903. The Chandra data reveal soft (kT_e ~ 0.2-0.5keV) diffuse emission in the nuclear starburst region and extending ~5kpc to the north and west of the nucleus. Much of this soft hot gas is likely to be from local active star-forming regions; however, besides the nuclear region, the morphology of hot gas does not strongly correlate with sites of active star formation. The central ~650 pc radius starburst zone exhibits much higher surface brightness diffuse emission than the surrounding regions and a harder spectral component in addition to its soft component. We interpret the hard component as being of thermal origin with kT_e~3.6keV and to be directly associated with a wind fluid produced by supernovae and massive star winds. The inferred terminal velocity for this hard component, ~1100 km/s, exceeds the local galaxy escape velocity suggesting a potential outflow. The softer extended emission does not display an obvious outflow geometry. However, the column density through which the X-rays are transmitted is lower to the west of the nucleus compared to the east and the surface brightness is higher there suggesting some soft hot gas originates from above the disk; viewed directly from the western zone but through the intervening galaxy disk from the eastern zone. There are several point-like sources in the nuclear region with X-ray spectra typical of compact binaries. None of these are coincident with the mass center of the galaxy and we place an upper limit luminosity from any point-like nuclear source to be < 2x10^38 ergs/s in the 0.5-8.0keV band which indicates that NGC 2903 lacks an active galactic nucleus. Heating from the nuclear starburst and a galactic wind may be responsible for preventing cold gas from accreting onto the galactic center.
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