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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297905 matches for " Dorothy J. Wiley "
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Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men
Dorothy J. Wiley,David Elashoff,Emmanuel V. Masongsong,Diane M. Harper,Karen H. Gylys,Michael J. Silverberg,Robert L. Cook,Lisette M. Johnson-Hill
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6031215
Abstract: Repeat episodes of HPV-related external genital warts reflect recurring or new infections. No study before has been sufficiently powered to delineate how tobacco use, prior history of EGWs and HIV infection affect the risk for new EGWs. Behavioral, laboratory and examination data for 2,835 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants examined at 21,519 semi-annual visits were evaluated. Fourteen percent (391/2835) of men reported or were diagnosed with EGWs at 3% (675/21,519) of study visits. Multivariate analyses showed smoking, prior episodes of EGWs, HIV infection and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count among the infected, each differentially influenced the risk for new EGWs.
Factors Affecting the Prevalence of Strongly and Weakly Carcinogenic and Lower-Risk Human Papillomaviruses in Anal Specimens in a Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)
Dorothy J. Wiley, Xiuhong Li, Hilary Hsu, Eric C. Seaberg, Ross D. Cranston, Stephen Young, Gypsyamber D’Souza, Otoniel Martínez-Maza, Katherine DeAzambuja, Kristofer Chua, Shehnaz K. Hussain, Roger Detels
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079492
Abstract: Background MSM are at higher risk for invasive anal cancer. Twelve human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer in women (Group 1 high-risk HPVs (hrHPVs)) and 13 HPVs are probable/possible causes (Group 2 hrHPVs) of cervical malignancy. HPVs rarely associated with malignancy are classified as lower-risk HPVs (lrHPVs). Materials and Methods Dacron-swab anal-cytology specimens were collected from and data complete for 97% (1262/1296) of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) men tested for HPVs using the Linear Array assay. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses estimated adjusted prevalence ratios for Group 1/2 hrHPVs and lrHPVs, controlling for the effects of age, race, ethnicity, sexual partnerships, smoking; HIV-infection characteristics, treatment, and immune status among HIV-infected men. Results HIV-infected men showed 35–90% higher prevalence of Group 1/2 hrHPVs and lrHPVs than HIV-uninfected men, and higher prevalence of multi-Type, and multiple risk-group infections. CD4+ T-cell count was inversely associated with HPV Group 2 prevalence (p<0.0001). The number of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) partners reported in the 24 months preceding HPV testing predicted higher prevalence of Group 1/2 hrHPVs. Men reporting ≥30 lifetime male sex partners before their first MACS visit and men reporting ≥1 RAI partners during the 24 months before HPV testing showed 17–24% and 13–17% higher prevalence of lrHPVs (p-values ≤0.05). Men reporting smoking between MACS visit 1 and 24 months before HPV testing showed 1.2-fold higher prevalence of Group 2 hrHPVs (p = 0.03). Both complete adherence to CART (p = 0.02) and HIV load <50 copies/mL (p = 0.04) were protective for Group 1 hrHPVs among HIV-infected men. Conclusions HIV-infected men more often show multi-type and multi-group HPV infections HIV-uninfected men. Long-term mutual monogamy and smoking cessation, generally, and CART-adherence that promotes (HIV) viremia control and prevents immunosuppression, specifically among HIV-infected MSM, are important prevention strategies for HPV infections that are relevant to anal cancer.
‘They did to him whatever they pleased’: The exercise of political power within Matthew’s narrative
Dorothy J. Weaver
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.319
Abstract: To read Matthew’s Gospel within the global context is to read this narrative vis-à-vis the urgent challenges facing the global community. One such challenge concerns the exercise of political power within the public arena. Throughout his narrative Matthew paints a vivid portrait of the political power brokers of Jesus’ world and the unsavoury methods that they use to achieve their goals. He also offers graphic depictions of political power as wielded by those in authority. This study examines Matthew’s narrative portrait of the first-century authorities, Roman and Jewish, who exercised power in Palestine and beyond. Part one depicts these authorities and their methods of exercising political power. Part two assesses the relative effectiveness of such uses of power in Matthew’s depiction. Part three points toward Matthew’s contrasting portrait of positive leadership patterns. Part four assesses Matthew’s narrative rhetoric as a tool for fruitful refl ection on the use of political power. How to cite this article: Weaver, D.J., 2009, ‘“They did to him whatever they pleased”: The exercise of political power within Matthew’s narrative’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1), Art. #319, 13 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.319
The Impact of Tuberculosis on Zambia and the Zambian Nursing Workforce
Dorothy Chanda,Davina J. Gosnell
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2006,
Abstract: In Zambia, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has greatly increased in the last 10 years. This article describes Zambia and highlights the country’s use of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals as a framework to guide TB treatment programmes. An overview of TB in Zambia is provided. Data related to TB cases at the county’s main referral hospital, the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), is discussed. Treatment policies and barriers are described. Zambian nurses have been greatly affected by the rise in the morbidity and mortality of nurses with TB. This article explains the impact of TB on the Zambian nursing workforce. Review of Zambian government programmes designed to address this health crisis and targeted interventions to reduce TB among nurses are offered.
The Science of Leading Yourself: A Missing Piece in the Health Care Transformation Puzzle  [PDF]
Wiley W. Souba
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2013.23006
Abstract:

Personal transformation is a prerequisite for sustainable transformation of our health care system. Integrating research from the language sciences, phenomenology, psychology and neurobiology, this article reviews the science of leading oneself. Because this “inward” journey can be alien and disorienting, the Language Leadership Performance Model is helpful in illustrating the relationship between the circumstances the leader is dealing with (the leadership challenge), the context (point of view) the leader brings to that challenge, and the leader’s way of being and acting (the definitive source of the leader’s performance). Using language, effective leaders reframe their leadership challenges such that their naturally correlated ways of being and acting provide them with new opportunity sets for exercising exemplary leadership. Using a house metaphor (The House of Leadership), a foundation for being a leader and a framework for exercising leadership are constructed. Laying the foundation of the model involves mastering the four pillars of being a leader. Erecting the framework entails building a contextual schema, which, when mastered, becomes a construct that in any leadership situation gives one the power to lead effectively as one’s natural self-expression. Both of these activities—laying the foundation and erecting the framework—involve a deconstruction of one’s existing leadership paradigm. Finally, A Heuristic for Leading Oneself is offered as a useful guide or owner’s manual as one embarks on this inward journey. Leading oneself is a uniquely human activity—studying it and how it works is a vital piece in solving the health care transformation puzzle.

The Phenomenology of Leadership  [PDF]
Wiley W. Souba
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2014.34008
Abstract:

Teaching people about leadership is different from creating leaders. Teaching leadership uses a third-person approach to impart someone else’s knowledge, which grants learners limited direct access to the being and actions of effective leaders. In contrast, creating leaders entails a first-person phenomenological methodology, which provides direct access to what it means to be a leader and what it means to exercise good leadership in real time, with real results. The distinctiveness of the first-person “as-lived/lived-through” approach lies in its capacity to disclose the hidden contexts that shape the ways of being, thinking, and acting that are the source of the leader’s performance. When these contexts become unveiled, it allows for the creation of new contexts that give leaders more space and more degrees of freedom to lead effectively as their natural self-expression. A phenomenological inquiry into leadership does not study the attributes of leaders, but rather the fundamental structures of human “being” that make it possible to be a leader in the first place. Because the phenomenological “facts” of lived experience reside in language, creating for oneself what it is to be a leader entails mastering a special language (that includes terms like intentionality; thrownness; being-in-the-world; clearing-for-action; absorbed coping; hermeneutic; and, break-down) from which leaders can orient their being, thinking, and actions. Learning to be a leader is not first and foremost about the acquisition of knowledge or certain personal attributes. Rather, only when leadership becomes an as-lived/lived-through experience does it grant access to its actual nature and essence.

The Thrown Leader  [PDF]
Wiley Souba, Matthew Souba
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2017.64010
Abstract:
The term “thrownness” designates our inevitable submission to life’s challenges and predicaments, often determined arbitrarily by chance or by destiny. We inescapably find ourselves thrown because the world matters to us in some way or another. The term has major implications for effective leadership since leaders are invariably thrown into vexing circumstances or inherit problems that they had nothing to do with creating in the first place. Effective leaders attend to and “throw off” their thrownness by choosing judiciously from those possibilities (actions) that are available to them in a particular situation. Our “being” as leaders is always a struggle between thrownness and possibility because the undertakings we engage in and the people we interact with—our students, our colleagues, and our families—matter to us in some way or another. We care about our future and the future of our work; that’s what makes the sting of being thrown so raw. But rather than avoiding or disengaging from their challenges, authentic leaders take responsibility for what was, what is, and what will be, regardless of the circumstances they are thrown into. Acceptance of the randomness and inevitability of being thrown, with its associated aggravations and annoyances, is a hallmark of effective leaders. This grants leaders a somewhat paradoxical gateway to freedom, a journey on which they can discover purpose in their thrown humanity.
A crystallographically isolated dimeric hydrolyzed chlorophosphazene dianion
Matthew J. Panzner,Wiley J. Youngs,Claire A. Tessier
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536808042116
Abstract: Single crystals of the title compound bis[bis(1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazol-2-ylidene)silver(I)] 1,5,5,7,11,11-hexachloro-2,8-dioxa-4,6,10,12,13,14-hexaaza-1λ5,3,5λ5,7λ5,9,11λ5-hexaphosphatricyclo[7.3.1.13,7]tetradeca-1(13),4,7(14),10-tetraene-6,12-diide 3,9-dioxide, [Ag(C6H10N2)2](Cl6N6O4P6)0.5, were isolated from the reaction of the silver N-heteocyclic carbene complex [Ag(C6H10N2)2]Cl and hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene [NPCl2]3 in the presence of water. The asymmetric unit contains one silver carbene cation with the carbene ligands bound to the Ag(I) in an almost linear arrangement and one half of a hydrolyzed phosphazene dianion. The second cation and additional half of the anion are generated by an inversion center.
TLR4 and Insulin Resistance
Jane J. Kim,Dorothy D. Sears
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/212563
Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a key feature of insulin resistance and obesity. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), involved in modulating innate immunity, is an important mediator of insulin resistance and its comorbidities. TLR4 contributes to the development of insulin resistance and inflammation through its activation by elevated exogenous ligands (e.g., dietary fatty acids and enteric lipopolysaccharide) and endogenous ligands (e.g., free fatty acids) which are elevated in obese states. TLR4, expressed in insulin target tissues, activates proinflammatory kinases JNK, IKK, and p38 that impair insulin signal transduction directly through inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) on serine residues. TLR4 activation also leads to increased transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, resulting in elevation of cytokine, chemokine, reactive oxygen species, and eicosanoid levels that promote further insulin-desensitization within the target cell itself and in other cells via paracrine and systemic effects. Increased understanding of cell type-specific TLR4-mediated effects on insulin action present the opportunity and challenge of developing related therapeutic approaches for improving insulin sensitivity while preserving innate immunity. 1. Introduction 1.1. Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is a primary defect leading to and a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes [1, 2]. The state of insulin resistance leads to increased insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. As long as compensatory hyperinsulinemia is sufficient to overcome the insulin resistance, fasting glycemia and glucose tolerance remain relatively normal. In patients destined to develop type 2 diabetes, β-cell compensation efficiency declines and relative insulin insufficiency develops leading to impaired glucose tolerance and eventually frank type 2 diabetes. Although there is still some debate as to whether the insulin resistance or the β-cell defect comes first, most epidemiologic studies indicate that in the early, pre-diabetic state, insulin resistance is the initiating abnormality. Type 2 diabetes only develops in insulin resistant patients with a concomitant β-cell defect. As such, many subject groups with insulin resistance who do not have diabetes. These include patients with simple obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and advanced age. There are a number of other abnormalities associated with insulin resistance that are included in the state of metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome are insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic,
Differences in Rat Dorsal Striatal NMDA and AMPA Receptors following Acute and Repeated Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activation
Dorothy J. Yamamoto, Nancy R. Zahniser
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037673
Abstract: Sprague-Dawley rats can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively) based on their locomotor activity induced by an acute low dose of cocaine. Upon repeated cocaine exposure, LCRs display greater locomotor sensitization, reward, and reinforcement than HCRs. Altered glutamate receptor expression in the brain reward pathway has been linked to locomotor sensitization and addiction. To determine if such changes contribute to the differential development of locomotor sensitization, we examined protein levels of total, phosphorylated, and cell surface glutamate N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-pr?opionate(AMPA) receptors (Rs) following acute or repeated cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in LCRs, HCRs and saline controls. Three areas involved in the development and expression of locomotor sensitization were investigated: the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum (dSTR). Our results revealed differences only in the dSTR, where we found that after acute cocaine, GluN2BTyr-1472 phosphorylation was significantly greater in LCRs, compared to HCRs and controls. Additionally in dSTR, after repeated cocaine, we observed significant increases in total GluA1, phosphorylated GluA1Ser-845, and cell surface GluA1 in all cocaine-treated animals vs. controls. The acute cocaine-induced increases in NMDARs in dSTR of LCRs may help to explain the more ready development of locomotor sensitization and susceptibility to addiction-like behaviors in rats that initially exhibit little or no cocaine-induced activation, whereas the AMPAR increases after repeated cocaine may relate to recruitment of more dorsal striatal circuits and maintenance of the marked cocaine-induced locomotor activation observed in all of the rats.
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