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CASE STUDY ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A VIDEO STORY-BASED INTERVENTI-ON WITH SELF-MODELING TREATMENT PACKAGE TO REDUCE STEREOTYPICAL SPITTING BEHAVIOR IN A YOUNG GIRL WITH AUTISM
Cindy NELSON-HEAD,Doris ADAMS HILL,Margaret FLORES
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a video story-based intervention with self-modeling to decrease spitting behavior in a female pre-school student with autism during an extended school year ser-vices program. An A-B-A-B design was used to demonstrate a functional relation between a video story-based intervention with self-modeling and decreased spitting be-havior. The results showed that spitting behavior de-crea-sed as a result of the video-based in-ter-vention package. The implications of these re-sults will be explored.
Accidental oxygen disconnection in the emergency department
Hill Guyon,Adams Bruce
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock , 2010,
Abstract: Accidental oxygen disconnection during rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in the emergency department is a potentially catastrophic yet avoidable event. We report three cases of inadvertent oxygen disconnection during RSI, which resulted in significant oxygen desaturation. This error can potentially be prevented by thorough preparation, focusing on teamwork training, ensuring an ergonomic environment, and by making simple modifications to existing equipment.
"I know I have arthritis but I don't know what type". Understanding and knowledge of this chronic condition
Tiffany K Gill, Catherine L Hill, Robert J Adams, Danny Broderick, Julie Black, Anne W Taylor
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-174
Abstract: Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS), a risk factor surveillance system where each month, a representative random sample of South Australians is selected from the Electronic White Pages, with interviews conducted using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Data were used for the period January 2006 to December 2008 (n = 16465) for respondents aged 18 years and over.Overall, the proportion of respondents who did not know what type of arthritis they had, among people aged 18 years and over, for 2006 to 2008 was 6.5% (95% CI 6.1-6.9). When considering only those respondents reporting that they had been told by a doctor that they had arthritis, 30.1% did not know what type of arthritis they had. Multivariate analysis indicated that males, those with have a trade, certificate or diploma or secondary level of education, who spoke a language other than English at home, were widowed and earned $20,001 to $60,000, more than $80,000 or did not state their income were more likely to maintain that they did not know what type of arthritis they had.Population ageing and an increase in arthritis prevalence in the future will further increase the burden of arthritis. These increases in prevalence are not inevitable, especially if investments are made in public health prevention programs, particularly those addressing cultural and linguistic diversity and differences in socio-economic status and health literacy.Chronic disease is a crucial public health issue [1]. Being able to provide policy and planning experts with quality data to assist them in their decision making is important, in an endeavour to provide appropriate preventive and management policies, programs and interventions. In our ageing society, where scarce health resources are being spread increasingly thin, evidence-based, valid, population-wide estimates of chronic conditions are required by decision-makers. The self-report nature of many of the data ele
A new z=0 metagalactic UV background limit
Joshua J. Adams,Juan M. Uson,Gary J. Hill,Phillip J. MacQueen
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/107
Abstract: We present new integral-field spectroscopy in the outskirts of two nearby, edge-on, late-type galaxies to search for the H-alpha emission that is expected from the exposure of their hydrogen gas to the metagalactic ultraviolet background (UVB). Despite the sensitivity of the VIRUS-P spectrograph on the McDonald 2.7m telescope to low surface brightness emission and the large field-of-view, we do not detect H-alpha to 5 sigma upper limits of 6.4 x 10^(-19) erg/s/cm^2/arcsec^2 in UGC 7321 and of 25 x 10^(-19) erg/s/cm^2/arcsec^2 in UGC 1281 in each of the hundreds of independent spatial elements (fibers). We fit gas distribution models from overlapping 21 cm data of HI, extrapolate one scale length beyond the HI data, and estimate predicted H-alpha surface brightness maps. We analyze three types of limits from the data with stacks formed from increasingly large spatial regions and compare to the model predictions: 1) single fibers, 2) convolution of the fiber grid with a Gaussian, circular kernel (10\arcsec\ full width half maximum), and 3) the coadded spectra from a few hundred fibers over the brightest model regions. None of these methods produce a significant detection (>5 sigma) with the most stringent constraints on the HI photoionization rate of Gamma(z=0)<1.7 x 10^(-14) s^(-1) in UGC 7321 and Gamma(z=0)<14 x 10^(-14) s^(-1) in UGC 1281. The UGC 7321 limit is below previous measurement limits and also below current theoretical models. Restricting the analysis to the fibers bound by the HI data leads to a comparable limit; the limit is Gamma(z=0)<2.3 x 10^(-14) s^(-1) in UGC 7321. We discuss how a low Lyman limit escape fraction in z~0 redshift star forming galaxies might explain this lower than predicted UVB strength and the prospects of deeper data to make a direct detection.
Vaccination with attenuated Salmonella enterica Dublin expressing E coli O157:H7 outer membrane protein Intimin induces transient reduction of fecal shedding of E coli O157:H7 in cattle
Sangeeta Khare, Walid Alali, Shuping Zhang, Doris Hunter, Roberta Pugh, Ferric C Fang, Stephen J Libby, L Garry Adams
BMC Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-6-35
Abstract: Cattle were orally inoculated with either milk (control), milk with live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (vector), or milk with live attenuated recombinant S. Dublin expressing intimin (vaccinated) on days 0, 14 and 28. On day 98, all calves were challenged orally with E. coli O157:H7 to evaluate whether vaccination with the recombinant S. Dublin expressing intimin would reduce the level of E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding.During the first 28 days, vaccinated calves shed both the vector strain and the intimin-expressing S. Dublin strain at a similar level. The vector strain was shed for a significantly longer period as compared to the level of recombinant vaccine strain. Calves that received the intimin-expressed vaccine ceased shedding S. Dublin from day 28 to day 63. All calves were challenged with E. coli O157:H7 on day 98 to determine the effect on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7. The amount of E. coli O157:H7 in feces was measured for 30 days post-challenge. We observed a transient clearance of E. coli O157:H7 from the feces in the vaccinated calves. The magnitude of fecal E. coli O157:H7 shedding did not correlate with the presence of intimin-specific fecal IgA.Oral vaccination with live attenuated recombinant S. Dublin expressing intimin reduced enteric colonization and fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7. However, the transient clearance of E. coli O157:H7 was not associated with an enhanced IgA-mediated mucosal immune response.Escherichia coli serogroup O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen that causes symptoms ranging from self-limiting bloody diarrhea to severe hemorrhagic colitis in humans [1,2]. E. coli O157:H7 infection can also cause extra-intestinal illness, most importantly hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). The majority of E. coli O157:H7-associated fatalities results from renal failure, neurologic manifestations, or other complications of HUS [3-5]. E. coli O157:H7 is mainly a food borne pathogen. Beef and dairy catt
Discretization and Interaction of Fields via the Classical Kaluza-Klein Theory  [PDF]
Doris LaChance, Claude Gauthier
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.412199
Abstract:

We show how the metric of a five-dimensional hyperspace-time can be used to model the quantum nature of electromagnetic interactions. The space-time neighborhood of the point where such an interaction takes place bends according to the curl and the derivative of the local electromagnetic four-potential, both calculated in the direction of the latter. In this geometric setting, the presence of a non-gravitational field is needed to induce the discretization of any gravitational field. We also exploit two variants of the classical Kaluza-Klein five-dimensional theory to obtain coupled generalizations of Einsteins and Maxwells equations. The first variant involves an unspecified scalar field that may be related to the inflaton. The equations of the second variant show a direct interdependency of gravitation and electromagnetism that would emerge or be activated through the production of electromagnetic waves.

Cause for concern in the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications in the community -a population-based study
Robert J Adams, Sarah L Appleton, Tiffany K Gill, Anne W Taylor, David H Wilson, Catherine L Hill
BMC Family Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-70
Abstract: Data were analysed from 3,206 adults attending first follow-up of the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS) in 2004 - 2006, a longitudinal representative population study. Medications were brought into study clinic visits by participants. Clinical assessment included measured blood pressure, kidney function, serum cholesterol, blood glucose. Questionnaires assessed demographics, lifestyle risk factors, physician-diagnosed chronic conditions. Data were weighted to census measures by region, age group, gender, and probability of selection in the household, to provide population representative estimates. Pearson's Chi-square tests determined significant differences in proportions. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations of socio-demographic characteristics with use of NSAIDs.Of 3,175 participants, 357 (11.2%), and 16% of those aged > 55 years, reported using either non-specific NSAIDs or COX-2 inhibitors, other than low-dose aspirin. Among people using NSAIDs, 60.8% had hypertension, 30.8% had Stage 3 or higher chronic kidney disease, 17.2% had a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 20.7% had a > 15% 10-year CVD risk. The prevalence of NSAID use among people with hypertension was 16%, with kidney disease 15.9%, and a history of CVD 20.0%. Among people taking diuretics, 24.1% were also taking NSAIDs, and of those taking medications for gastro-esophageal reflux, 24.7% were on NSAIDs. Prescription-only COX-2 inhibitors, but not other NSAIDs, were used more by people > 75 years than by 35-54 year olds (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.0, 6.7), and also were more commonly used by people with hypertension, cardiac and kidney disease.There is a high prevalence of current NSAID use among groups at-risk for significant drug-related adverse events or who have major chronic conditions that are relative contraindications to NSAID use. Assessment of absolute risks regarding cardiovascular and kidney disease need to take into account use of medications such as NSAIDs
Parkinson’s Disease—Apoptosis and Dopamine Oxidation  [PDF]
James David Adams Jr.
Open Journal of Apoptosis (OJApo) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojapo.2012.11001
Abstract: Tyrosine hydroxylase, monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase all form oxygen radicals as part of their mechanisms of action. These oxygen radicals damage dopaminergic neurons in the substantianigra of the midbrain and cause them to die by a process of necrosis or apoptosis. Oxygen radicals quickly abstract hydrogen from DNA forming DNA radicals and causing DNA fragmentation, activation of DNA protective mechanisms, NAD depletion and cell death. Tyrosine hydroxylase is present in all dopaminergic neurons, is involved in the synthesis of dopamine and forms oxygen radicals in a redox mechanism involving its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin. Levodopa is used therapeutically in Parkinson’s disease patients since it is a precursor for dopamine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, and prolongs pa-tient’s lives. Monoamine oxidase converts dopamine into 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and forms oxygen radi-cals.Aldehyde dehydrogenase oxidizes the aldehyde and forms oxygen radicals and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The treatment of Parkinson’s disease should involveinhibitors of oxygen radical formation in dopaminergic neurons and neuroprotective agents that stimulate DNA repair and prevent cell death.
Editorial: Apoptosis is Critical to Pain Control  [PDF]
James David Adams
Open Journal of Apoptosis (OJApo) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojapo.2013.23003
Abstract: Editorial: Apoptosis is Critical to Pain Control
Immiserizing Credit: Challenging the Efficacy of Microfinance  [PDF]
Frank Raymond, John Adams
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.48058
Abstract:

Despite a dearth of theoretical studies, there is widespread perception that microfinance is an enormously useful tool for economic development. However, an increasing number of households in lesser developed countries are facing the same debt squeeze as those in the developed world, but are less able to manage debt responsibilities. The consequences are much more dramatic for LDC households because a much larger portion of household income is necessary for subsistence. As such, microfinance can become immiserizing for poor families with few assets. We develop a dynamic model that allows households to use credit markets in order to augment household consumption or capital. Results indicate a proclivity for households to increase debt over time, challenging the efficacy of microfinance as a sustainable tool for development.

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