We show how the metric of a five-dimensional hyperspace-time can be used to model the quantum nature of electromagnetic interactions. The space-time neighborhood of the point where such an interaction takes place bends according to the curl and the derivative of the local electromagnetic four-potential, both calculated in the direction of the latter. In this geometric setting, the presence of a non-gravitational field is needed to induce the discretization of any gravitational field. We also exploit two variants of the classical Kaluza-Klein five-dimensional theory to obtain coupled generalizations of Einstein’s and Maxwell’s equations. The first variant involves an unspecified scalar field that may be related to the inflaton. The equations of the second variant show a direct interdependency of gravitation and electromagnetism that would emerge or be activated through the production of electromagnetic waves.
Despite a dearth of theoretical studies, there is widespread perception that microfinance is an enormously useful tool for economic development. However, an increasing number of households in lesser developed countries are facing the same debt squeeze as those in the developed world, but are less able to manage debt responsibilities. The consequences are much more dramatic for LDC households because a much larger portion of household income is necessary for subsistence. As such, microfinance can become immiserizing for poor families with few assets. We develop a dynamic model that allows households to use credit markets in order to augment household consumption or capital. Results indicate a proclivity for households to increase debt over time, challenging the efficacy of microfinance as a sustainable tool for development.