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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297557 matches for " Dorah J. Mtui "
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Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Gastrointestinal Pain, Inflammation and Diarrhea in Africa: Future Perspectives for Integration into Modern Medicine
Timo D. Stark,Dorah J. Mtui,Onesmo B. Balemba
Animals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ani3010158
Abstract: There is a growing need to find the most appropriate and effective treatment options for a variety of painful syndromes, including conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, for treating both veterinary and human patients. The most successful regimen may come through integrated therapies including combining current and novel western drugs with acupuncture and botanical therapies or their derivatives. There is an extensive history and use of plants in African traditional medicine. In this review, we have highlighted botanical remedies used for treatment of pain, diarrheas and inflammation in traditional veterinary and human health care in Africa. These preparations are promising sources of new compounds comprised of flavonoids, bioflavanones, xanthones, terpenoids, sterols and glycosides as well as compound formulas and supplements for future use in multimodal treatment approaches to chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation. The advancement of plant therapies and their derivative compounds will require the identification and validation of compounds having specific anti-nociceptive neuromodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory effects. In particular, there is need for the identification of the presence of compounds that affect purinergic, GABA, glutamate, TRP, opioid and cannabinoid receptors, serotonergic and chloride channel systems through bioactivity-guided, high-throughput screening and biotesting. This will create new frontiers for obtaining novel compounds and herbal supplements to relieve pain and gastrointestinal disorders, and suppress inflammation.
Trends in industrial and environmental biotechnology research in Tanzania
GYS Mtui
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: This paper reviews the trends in industrial and environmental biotechnology research in Tanzania for the past 20 years. Researches on production of bio-energy, enzymes and organic acids are reviewed. Furthermore, researches related to wastewater treatment systems including water stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands are covered. Brief highlights are made on researches related to bioprospecting and molecular biology techniques used in identification of organisms. In critically reviewing the research done so far, an attempt is made to pinpoint significant research gaps in areas such as single cell protein, biomining, biocomposting and bioengineering. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of the renewable raw materials available in the developing countries and outlines the researches that have been done to convert them to bio-products, while reducing bio-wastes. The identified gaps will serve as guidance to scientists who are interested in doing research in untapped areas of biotechnology.
Recent advances in pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes and production of value added products
GYS Mtui
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: This study highlights the recent advances in the treatment and value addition of lignocellulosic wastes (LCW) with main focus on domestic and agro-industrial residues. Mechanical, physical and biological treatment systems are brought into perspective. The main value-added products from lignocellulosic wastes are summarized in a manner that pinpoints the most recent trends and the future directions. Physicochemical and biological treatment systems seem to be the most favored options while biofuels, biodegradable composites and biosorbents production paints a bright picture of the current and future bio-based products. Engineered microbes seem to tackle the problem of bioconversion of substrates that are otherwise non convertible by conventional wild strains. Although the main challenge facing LCW utilization is the high costs involved in treatment and production processes, some recent affordable processes with promising results have been proposed. Future trends are being directed to nanobiotechnology and genetic engineering for improved processes and products. The paper presents state of the art review of the dual advantage of handling LCW for cleaner environment and production of renewable bio-products.
Combined chemical and biological treatment of recalcitrant industrial effluents: a case study on kraft pulp wastewater.
GYS Mtui
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2001,
Abstract: The chemical degradation of lignin-rich kraft pulp wastewater was carried out by ozonation process flowed by biological treatment using activated sludge. The effects of pH on the degradation of lignin and the production of organic acids were examined experimentally in the ozonolysis of wastewater. The strong alkaline condition enhanced not only the degradation of lignin but also the production of organic acids. The maximum value of BOD5/COD obtained after 12 hours of ozonation was 0.41, indicating that ozone treatment improved the biodegradability of the kraft pulp wastewater. The dynamic behaviours of microbial growth and substrate consumption were investigated in the biodegradation of organic acids using activated sludge. Maleic acid and oxalic acid in the ozonized wastewater were degraded completely by the activated sludge in shake-flasks and bench-scale aerated bioreactor experiments. The immobilized activated sludge culture using polyurethane foam (PUF) was most effective in degrading organic acids in continuous culture condition at an optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 hours. The study confirmed that consecutive treatments by ozone and activated sludge are effective methods to treat industrial effluents containing recalcitrant environmental pollutants such as kraft pulp wastewater. Tanzania Journal of Science Volume 27A (Special Issue) 2001, pp. 79-92
Characteristics and dyes biodegradation potential of crude lignolytic enzymes from white-rot fungus crepidotus variabilis isolated in coastal Tanzania
Gys Mtui
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2007,
Abstract: Lignocellulosic enzymes from Crepidotus variabilis collected from mangrove forests of coastal Tanzania were investigated by using standard methods, and their ability to degrade aromatic compounds were elucidated. The fungal crude enzyme filtrates had maximum laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities of 70 U/mL, 16 U/mL and 8, U/mL respectively. The crude enzyme extracts were able to oxidize rhemazol brilliant blue-R (RBB-R) dye, phenol, "-naphthol and pyrogallol. Also, they could remove up to 58% and 92% color from raw textile effluent and aromatic dyes, respectively, after 14 days of incubation at 30oC and pH 4.5. Desalted and size-separated enzyme filtrates, resolved by sodium docecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF), showed laccases and peroxidases from C. variabilis to have molecular weights of 67 kDa and 47 kDa, respectively, while the isoelectric points (pI) of laccases and peroxidases were found to lie in a range of 3.0 to 4.1. The study provided basic information on the characteristics of crude lignolytic enzymes from C. variabilis and confirmed it to be one of the potential biodegraders of aromatic compounds that could be applied in bioremediation of polluted ecosystem.
A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania
E. S. Swai,M. J. Kessy,P. N. Sanka,P. F. Mtui
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v82i1.30
Abstract: A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD) or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90) of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2 = 16.1, P < 0.001) between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.
Lignocellulosic enzymes from Flavodon flavus, a fungus isolated from Western Indian Ocean off the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
G Mtui, Y Nakamura
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Marine basidiomycetes fungus Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden was isolated from sea grass at Mjimwema in the Western Indian Ocean off the Coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and cultured in the laboratory. Protein content and lignocellulosic enzyme activities were measured by photometric methods. Desalted and size-separated enzyme filtrates were resolved by sodium docecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). The fungal filtrate had maximum lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac) activities of 42, 25 and 15 U/mL, respectively. At low carbon medium, F. flavus showed effective (92 - 100%) decolorization of raw textile wastewater and synthetic dyes such as rhemazol brilliant blue-R (RBB-R), Brilliant green, Congo red, Reactive black and Reactive yellow. SDS-PAGE analysis showed major bands of sizeseparated enzymes from F. flavus at relative molecular weights between 45 and 70 kDa. The LiP of F. flavus, purified by ion exchange chromatography, revealed that it has a molecular weight of 46 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The study confirmed extracellular enzymes from F. flavus to be potential degraders of organic pollutants and showed that facultative marine fungi that live under harsh seawater conditions are suitable for bioremediation of recalcitrant environmental pollutants.
Characterization of Lignocellulosic Enzymes from White-rot Fungus Phlebia chrysocreas Isolated from a Marine Habitat
Godliving Mtui,Yoshitoshi Nakamura
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Marine fungus Phlebia chrysocreas was isolated from decomposing mangrove leaves in Western Indian Ocean cost and cultured in the laboratory. Protein content and lignocellulosic enzyme activities were measured by photometric methods. Desalted and size-separated enzyme filtrates were resolved by sodium Docecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Isoelectric Focusing (IEF). The fungal filtrate had maximum Lignin Peroxidase (LiP), Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac), activities of 45, 37 and 11 U mL 1, respectively. P. chrysocreas, showed effective (92-100%) decolorization of synthetic azo dyes (Azure-B, Poly-B and Poly-R) in liquid cultures and completely decolorized textile wastewater in immobilized cultures. The LiP and MnP from P. chrysocreas purified by gel filtration chromatography revealed it to have molecular weights of 46 kDa and 47 kDa and isoelectric points of 4.0 and 3.8, respectively. Purified fractions had optimal reaction rates at temperature of 30 C for both LiP and MnP while optimal pH for LiP and MnP were 4.5 and 5.0, respectively. The study confirmed extracellular enzymes from P. chrysocreas to be potential degraders of organic pollutants and showed that facultative marine fungi that live under harsh seawater conditions are suitable for bioremediation of recalcitrant compounds.
Influence of sampling depth and post-sampling analysis time on the occurrence of coliforms and vibrio in water and shellfish
RE Sallema, GYS Mtui
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2005,
Abstract: The bacteriological quality was examined at the water surface, 3 m depth and in the shellfish flesh, and the results were compared to other potential pathogenic indicator organisms. The study was conducted at Long Harbour (mussel farm), St. John's and Outer Cove sites of Newfoundland, Canada. Bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples taken at water depth and at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours post-sampling. It was observed that the total and faecal coliform bacteria were significantly higher in the 3 m water depth samples than in the surface water samples (ANOVA, F = 59.41, 26.751, 9.82 (T.C); 46.41, 26.81, 10.72 (F.C); P <0.001). In addition, shellfish tissues had substantial amounts of coliform bacteria levels, which varied significantly with station and date of sampling (F = 128.21,37.42 (T.C); 1281, 37.42 (F.C); P <0.05). The higher levels reflect bioaccumulation. There were no correlations between estimates of total or faecal coliforms with potential pathogenic Vibrio groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in total and faecal coliforms among the post-sampling time intervals. The results suggest that sampling and bacteriological analysis of water and shellfish for quality control should consider both the water surface and depths proximal to the shellfish. Moreover, adoption of extended post-sampling time may lead to a more convenient and less costly approach to monitoring of bacteriological impact on the coastal marine environments. Tanzania Journal of Science Vol. 31 (1) 2005: pp. 55-64
Physicochemical and Microbiological Water Quality of Lake Sagara in Malagarasi Wetlands
Y.S. Mtui Godliving,Yoshitoshi Nakamura
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The physicochemical and microbiological water quality parameters of Lake Sagara in the Malagarasi ecosystem, Tanzania, were studied between September 2003 and January 2004. Standard methods of analysis were used to elucidate the levels of the main water quality parameters. The Lake was found to be shallow (maximum depth 6.5 m) with encroaching hydrophytes and floodplain grasslands. High turbidity values ranging from 20-126.5 NTU recorded in the studied sites was attributed to vigorous wind mixing of the Lake water. The temperature, pH and chlorides values were 24.4-27.0 C, 6.8-8.8, 7.9-17.4 mg L-1), respectively. These values are within the standard water quality requirements. The values of conductivity (89-212 ìs/cm), phosphates (1.0-4.5 mg L-1), organic nitrogen (0.8-2.2 mg L-1); abundant sediments and algal blooms suggest that Lake Sagara is eutrophic. Values of dissolved oxygen (6.2-7.3 mg L-1), COD (22.1-42.6 mg L-1) and BOD (3.8-7.1 mg L-1) show that so far, the levels of oxygen-demanding wastes in Lake Sagara can still sustain aquatic life. The high counts of enteric pathogenic microorganisms including fecal coiliform (10-66 MPN/100m), Vibrio sp. (2-6 CFU mL-1) and Salmonella sp. (1-4 CFU mL-1) as a result of surface runoff and direct contamination depict poor hygienic practices by the local fishermen and the surrounding communities. This work provides the first ever scientific research on the microbiological status of Malagarasi-Muyovozi wetland ecosystem.
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