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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11684 matches for " Donna Farland-Smith "
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Preschool Teachers Understanding of Science Identity  [PDF]
Donna Farland-Smith
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.92019
Abstract: This study utilized a survey to analyze preschool teachers’ perceptions of science identity before and after watching an episode of?Sid the Science Kid?during a professional development. A total of twelve teachers participated in the study by completing pre and post survey questions. The one question that was addressed during this study was how teachers felt about science identity before and after watching the Sid the Science Kid episode? Two notable conclusions were a result of this study 1) preschool teacher’s lack of awareness and understanding of science identity; and 2) preschool teacher’s appreciation and willingness of students’ to role play being a scientist, but little understanding of why this role play is beneficial.
What Are My Children Watching? Analyzing the Scientific & Mathematical Questions of Preschool Television Shows Using Process Skills  [PDF]
Donna Farland-Smith, Theodore Chao
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.86061
Abstract: In an effort to compare what process skills preschoolers were exposed to during an average episode of Sid the Science Kid and an average episode of Team Umizoomi 35 episodes of each were compared using T-test statistical analysis. The goal of this study was to analyze evidence of process skills in each episode: observing, inferring, classifying, measuring, predicting, and communicating and compare each math and science show and determine their differences in their use of inquiry to presentation science and mathematics content. Results demonstrated a significant difference between the two shows with preschoolers being exposed to observing and communicating when watching Sid the Science Kid and preschoolers being exposed to classifying and measuring while watching Team Umizoomi. In addition, it is worth mentioning that young children watching Team Umizoomi are experiencing more questions when compared with Sid the Science Kid.
Registered Dietitian Wellness Insurance Benefit Makes a Difference in Adult Weight Management: A Pre-Post Study  [PDF]
Linda Snetselaar, Karen L. Smith, Donna Hollinger, Esther Myers, Gwen Murphy, Laura Goettinger Qualls
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210139
Abstract: Registered Dietitian (RD) services as part of insurance wellness programs offer a promising potential venue for improving public health. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of RD nutrition counseling services provided as part of an insurance benefit on body weight and associated health parameters. Eligible members could enroll to receive 6 RDs visits a year for assistance with weight management. The study RDs were randomized into either Usual Care (UC) or Lifestyle Case Management (LCM) groups. Body weight, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements of program enrollees were evaluated for between group as well as start and end program comparisons. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of RD follow-up visits between the two groups as LCM patients had more RD contact than UC patients. Weight and waist circumference changes from baseline to end of study show statistically significant changes with a trend for improvement in systolic blood pressure. Additionally, a clinically significant reduction in weight was achieved in a quarter of program enrollees. In conclusion this study shows that through a coordinated health promotion program RDs’ services are of value to an insured population.
Duloxetine: A Review of Its Safety and Efficacy in the Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome
Howard S. Smith, Donna Bracken and Joshua M. Smith
Journal of Central Nervous System Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/JCNSD.S4127
Abstract: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms including fatigue, insomnia, cognitive/memory problems, and even psychological distress. Duloxetine is one of three FDA approved medications (the other two being milnacipran and pregabalin) for the treatment of FM. It has been demonstrated that FM patients possess low central nervous system levels of serotonin and norepinephrine. Duloxetine, which is classified pharmacologically as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), may be beneficial for FM patients by increasing these levels. This review will touch briefly upon the pathophysiology of FM, diagnostic tools, currently available therapeutic options (both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic), as well as the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of duloxetine. In addition, the efficacy and safety/tolerability of duloxetine exclusively in FM will be assessed through examination of 5 randomized controlled trials, as well as pooled analyses of current data. Suggestions for a therapeutic niche for duloxetine in FM are discussed based on a presentation of the characteristics of duloxetine.
Duloxetine: A Review of Its Safety and Efficacy in the Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome
Howard S. Smith,Donna Bracken,Joshua M. Smith
Journal of Central Nervous System Disease , 2010,
The Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS) in clinical trials: cross-cultural validation in venous thromboembolism patients
Cano Stefan J,Lamping Donna L,Bamber Luke,Smith Sarah
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-120
Abstract: Background The Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS) is a 15-item patient-reported instrument of satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment. It includes a 12-item ACTS Burdens scale and a 3-item ACTS Benefits scale. Its role in clinical trials and other settings should be supported by evidence that it is both clinically meaningful and scientifically sound. The aim of the study was to evaluate the measurement performance of the ACTS (Dutch, Italian, French, German and English language versions) in patients with venous thromboembolism based on traditional psychometric methods. Methods ACTS Burdens and Benefits scale data from a large clinical trial (EINSTEIN DVT) involving 1336 people with venous thromboembolism were analysed at both the scale and item level. Five key psychometric properties were examined using traditional psychometric methods: acceptability, scaling assumptions, reliability (including internal consistency reliability, test-retest reproducibility); validity (including known groups and discriminant validity); and responsiveness. These methods of examination underpin the US Food and Drug Administration recommendations for patient-reported outcome instrument evaluation. Results Overall, the 12-item ACTS Burdens scale and 3-item ACTS Benefits scale met the psychometric criteria evaluated at both item and scale levels, with the exception of some relatively minor issues in the Dutch language version, which were just below reliability criteria (i.e. alpha = 0.72, test-retest intraclass correlation = 0.79). A consistent finding from item-level evaluations of aggregate endorsement frequencies and skewness suggested that response scales may be improved by reducing the number of response options from five to four. Conclusions Both the ACTS Burdens and ACTS Benefits scales consistently satisfied traditional reliability and validity criteria across multiple language datasets, supporting it as a clinically useful patient-reported instrument of satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment in clinical trials. Trial registration number NCT00440193
Conversant or clueless? Chlamydia-related knowledge and practice of general practitioners in Western Australia
Meredith J Temple-Smith, Donna Mak, Jan Watson, Lisa Bastian, Anthony Smith, Marian Pitts
BMC Family Practice , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-9-17
Abstract: All 2038 GPs registered on the Australian Medical Publishing Company's database as practising in Western Australia were sent a survey which covered clinical features of chlamydia, investigations, treatment and public health issues; 576 (29%) responded.Most GPs were aware of chlamydia being common in the 20–24 year old age group, but less than half were aware that it is common in 15–19 year olds. GPs missed many opportunities for chlamydia testing in patients likely to be at risk of STIs, largely because they thought the patient would be embarrassed. It is of concern that public health responsibilities in relation to chlamydia, ie notification and contact tracing, were not undertaken by all GPs.Australia is currently piloting chlamydia screening. For this to be successful, GPs will need to maintain current knowledge and clinical suspicion about chlamydia, and be comfortable in asking and receiving information about sexual behaviours. Only then will GPs have a significant impact on curbing Australia's ever-increasing rates of chlamydia.In Western Australia (WA), as in other parts of Australia, the occurrence of genital chlamydia infection (from now on referred to as chlamydia) has been increasing, with notifications and age-standardised rates almost quadrupling from 1591 to 5863 (82.6 to 284.6 per 100,000), between 1997 and 2006 [1]. A recent study conducted in Victoria, Australia, showed strong correlation between chlamydia notification and testing rates in both men and women, suggesting that increased testing would identify further chlamydia infections [2].Left untreated, chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain [3]. Early diagnosis can be achieved through screening and has been shown to be of benefit in reducing such complications [4,5]. Furthermore, access to nucleic acid testing, self-collected or non-invasive sampling, and single-dose treatment for chlamydia has been available since the late 1990s, r
Immune Response Testing of Electrospun Polymers: An Important Consideration in the Evaluation of Biomaterials
Matthew J. Smith,Donna C. Smith,Kimber L. White, Jr.,Gary L. Bowlin
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics , 2007,
Abstract: Due primarily to cell sourcing issues, many in the field of tissue engineering have opted to create scaffolds that promote in situ regeneration, using the body as both the bioreactor and the cell source for the remodeling of scaffolds, resulting in the formation of native tissue. This practice raises many concerns, with the body’s immune response to such an implant often being neglected as a potential problem in preliminary design and biocompatibility testing. More importantly, what happens over time in terms of the immune responses as the biodegradable scaffold structures being utilized to promote in situ regeneration begin to degrade, forming structural fragments and degradation products? In summary, immune response evaluations are critical considerations that must be conducted when evaluating bioresorbable scaffolds. In addition, it is essential that these evaluations analyze materials for their potential dose-response and time-course effects on the various components of innate and acquired immunity.
Heavy Metals in Soil and Salad in the Proximity of Historical Ferroalloy Emission  [PDF]
Roberta Ferri, Filippo Donna, Donald R. Smith, Stefano Guazzetti, Annalisa Zacco, Luigi Rizzo, Elza Bontempi, Neil J. Zimmerman, Roberto G. Lucchini
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.35047
Abstract: Emissions of manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) from ferro-alloy operations has taken place in Valcamonica, a pre-Alp valley in the province of Brescia, Italy, for about a century until 2001. Metal concentrations were measured in the soil of local home gardens and in the cultivated vegetables. Soil analysis was carried out using a portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer in both surface soil and at 10 cm depth. A subset of soil samples (n = 23) additionally was analysed using the modified BCR sequential extraction method and ICP-OES for intercalibration with XRF (XRF Mn = 1.33 * total OES Mn – 71.8; R = 0.830, p < 0.0001). Samples of salads (Lactuca sativa and Chichorium spp.) were analyzed with a Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) technique. Vegetable and soil metal measurements were performed in 59 home gardens of Valcamonica, and compared with 23 gardens from the Garda Lake reference area. Results indicate significantly higher levels of soil Mn (median 986 ppm vs 416 ppm), Pb (median 46.1 ppm vs 30.2 ppm), Fe (median 19,800 ppm vs 13,100 ppm) in the Valcamonica compared to the reference area. Surface soil levels of all metals were significantly higher in surface soil compared to deeper soil, consistent with atmospheric deposition. Significantly higher levels of metals were shown also in lettuce from Valcamonica for Mn (median 53.6 ppm vs 30.2) and Fe (median 153 vs 118). Metals in Chichorium spp. did not differ between the two areas. Surface soil metal levels declined with increasing distance from the closest ferroalloy plant, consistent with plant emissions as the source of elevated soil metal levels. A correlation between Mn concentrations in soil and lettuce was also observed. These data show that historic ferroalloy plant activity, which ended nearly a decade before this study, has contributed to the persistence of increased Mn levels in locally grown vegetables. Further research is needed to assess whether this increase can lead to adverse effects in humans and plants especially for Mn, an essential element that can be toxic in humans when exceeding the homeostatic ranges.
The Role of Endosomal Escape and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Adenoviral Activation of the Innate Immune Response
Jeffrey S. Smith, Zhili Xu, Jie Tian, Donna J. Palmer, Philip Ng, Andrew P. Byrnes
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026755
Abstract: Adenoviral vectors (AdV) activate multiple signaling pathways associated with innate immune responses, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In this study, we investigated how systemically-injected AdVs activate two MAPK pathways (p38 and ERK) and the contribution of these kinases to AdV-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in mice. Mice were injected intravenously either with a helper-dependent Ad2 vector that does not express viral genes or transgenes, or with the Ad2 mutant ts1, which is defective in endosomal escape. We found that AdV induced rapid phosphorylation of p38 and ERK as well as a significant cytokine response, but ts1 failed to activate p38 or ERK and induced only a limited cytokine response. These results demonstrate that endosomal escape of virions is a critical step in the induction of these innate pathways and responses. We then examined the roles of p38 and ERK pathways in the innate cytokine response by administering specific kinase inhibitors to mice prior to AdV. The cytokine and chemokine response to AdV was only modestly suppressed by a p38 inhibitor, while an ERK inhibitor has mixed effects, lowering some cytokines and elevating others. Thus, even though p38 and ERK are rapidly activated after i.v. injection of AdV, cytokine and chemokine responses are mostly independent of these kinases.
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