Abstract:
Now days, different kinds of IDS systems are available for serving in the network distributed system, but these systems mainly concentrate on network-based and host-based detection. It is inconvenient to integrate these systems into distributed application servers for application-based intrusion detection. An agent-based IDS that can be smoothly integrated into the applications of enterprise information systems is proposed in this paper and we discuss the system architecture, agent structure, and integration mechanism. Our IDS system consists of three kinds of agents, namely, client agent, server agent and communication agent. This paper also explains how to integrate agents with an access control model for getting better security performance. By introducing standard protocols such as KQML, IDMEF into the design of agent, our agent-based IDS shows how to build more flexible software applications.

Abstract:
We elaborate on an alternative representation of
conditional probability to the usual tree diagram. We term the representation “turtleback
diagram” for its resemblance to the pattern on turtle shells. Adopting the set
theoretic view of events and the sample space, the turtleback diagram uses
elements from Venn diagrams—set intersection, complement and partition—for
conditioning, with the additional notion that the area of a set indicates
probability whereas the ratio of areas for conditional probability. Once parts
of the diagram are drawn and properly labeled, the calculation of conditional
probability involves only simple arithmetic on the area of relevant sets. We
discuss turtleback diagrams in relation to other visual representations of
conditional probability, and detail several scenarios in which turtleback
diagrams prove useful. By the equivalence of recursive space partition and the tree,
the turtleback diagram is seen to be equally expressive as the tree diagram for
abstract concepts. We also provide empirical data on the use of turtleback diagrams
with undergraduate students in elementary statistics or probability courses.

Abstract:
In this paper we will prove the nodal line $N$ of the second eigenfunction of the Laplacian over some simply connected concave domain $\Omega$ in $\mathbb{R}^2$ must intersect the boundary $\partial\Omega$ at exactly two points.

Abstract:
In this paper we obtain a new class of open sets, and we prove the class is compact under the Hausdorff distance, then we prove the existence of solutions of some shape optimization for elliptic equations.

Abstract:
In this study, a modeling method to analyze multidimensional time series based on complex networks is proposed. The rate of return sequence of the closing price and the trading volume fluctuation sequence of the Shanghai Composite Index, the Shenzhen Component Index, the S & P 500 index, and the Dow Jones Industrial Average are analyzed. The two-dimensional time series is transformed into a complex network. We analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of the network to determine the relationship between volume and price. It is found that the interaction of stock return and volume in China’ stock market is more obvious than that in the American market.

Abstract:
A checklist of Chinese Oligaphorurini is given. Two new Chinese species, Micraphorura changbaiensis sp. n. and Oligaphorura pseudomontana sp. n., are described from Changbai Mountain Range. M. changbaiensis sp. n. has the same dorsal pseudocelli formula and number of papillae in Ant. III sensory organ as M. uralica, but they can be easily distinguished by number of chaetae in Ant. III sensory organ, ventral pseudocelli formula, ventral parapseudocelli formula, number of pseudocelli on subcoxa 1 of legs I–III, dorsal axial chaeta on Abd. V and number of chaetae on tibiotarsi. O. pseudomontana sp. n. is very similar to the species O. montanaan increased number of pseudocelli on body dorsally, well marked base of antenna with 1 pseudocellus and 3 pseudocelli outside, subcoxa 1 of legs I–III with 1 pseudocellus each, dorsally S-chaetae formula as 11/011/22211 from head to Abd. V, S-microchaeta present on Th. II–III, claw without inner teeth and with 1+1 lateral teeth, and unguiculus with basal lamella; but they can be separated easily by the number of pseudocelli on Abd. V and VI terga, parapseudocelli on the body, number of chaetae on Th. I tergum, and number of chaetae on tibiotarsi. A key to Chinese species of Oligaphorurini is provided in the present paper.

Abstract:
The evolution of the electric and magnetic components in an effective Yang-Mills condensate dark energy model is investigated. If the electric field is dominant, the magnetic component disappears with the expansion of the Universe. The total YM condensate tracks the radiation in the earlier Universe, and later it becomes $w_y\sim-1$ thus is similar to the cosmological constant. So the cosmic coincidence problem can be avoided in this model. However, if the magnetic field is dominant, $w_y>1/3$ holds for all time, suggesting that it cannot be a candidate for the dark energy in this case.

Abstract:
We calculate the bispectrum, B_g(k_1,k_2,k_3), Fourier transform of the three-point function of density peaks (e.g., galaxies), using two different methods: the Matarrese-Lucchin-Bonometto formula and the locality of galaxy bias. The bispectrum of peaks is not only sensitive to that of the underlying matter density fluctuations, but also to the four-point function. For a physically-motivated, local form of primordial non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbation, we show that the galaxy bispectrum contains five physically distinct pieces: (i) non-linear gravitational evolution, (ii) non-linear galaxy bias, (iii) f_nl, (iv) f_nl^2, and (v) \gnl. While (i), (ii), and a part of (iii) have been derived in the literature, (iv) and (v) are derived in this paper for the first time. Our finding suggests that the galaxy bispectrum is more sensitive to f_nl than previously recognized, and is also sensitive to a new term, g_nl. For a more general form of local-type non-Gaussianity, the coefficient \fnl^2 can be interpreted as \tau_nl, which allows us to test multi-field inflation models. The usual terms from Gaussian initial conditions, have the smallest signals in the squeezed configurations, while the others have the largest signals; thus, we can distinguish them easily. We cannot interpret the effects of f_nl on B_g(k_1,k_2,k_3) as a scale-dependent bias, and thus replacing the linear bias in the galaxy bispectrum with the scale-dependent bias known for the power spectrum results in an incorrect prediction. As the importance of primordial non-Gaussianity relative to the non-linear gravity evolution and galaxy bias increases toward higher redshifts, galaxy surveys probing a high-redshift universe are particularly useful for probing the primordial non-Gaussianity.

Abstract:
We derive general covariant expressions for the six independent observable modes of distortion of ideal standard rulers in a perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. Our expressions are gauge-invariant and valid on the full sky. These six modes are most naturally classified in terms of their rotational properties on the sphere, yielding two scalars, two vector (spin-1), and two tensor (spin-2) components. One scalar corresponds to the magnification, while the spin-2 components correspond to the shear. The vector components allow for a polar/axial decomposition analogous to the E/B-decomposition for the shear. Scalar modes do not contribute to the axial (B-)vector, opening a new avenue to probing tensor modes. Our results apply, but are not limited to, the distortion of correlation functions (of the CMB, 21cm emission, or galaxies) as well as to weak lensing shear and magnification, all of which can be seen as methods relying on "standard rulers".

Abstract:
The B-(curl-)mode of the correlation of galaxy ellipticities (shear) can be used to detect a stochastic gravitational wave background, such as that predicted by inflation. In this paper, we derive the tensor mode contributions to shear from both gravitational lensing and intrinsic alignments, using the gauge-invariant, full-sky results of arXiv:1204.3625. We find that the intrinsic alignment contribution, calculated using the linear alignment model, is larger than the lensing contribution by an order of magnitude or more, if the alignment strength for tensor modes is of the same order as for scalar modes. This contribution also extends to higher multipoles. These results make the prospects for probing tensor modes using galaxy surveys less pessimistic than previously thought, though still very challenging.