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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 346 matches for " Donatella TARAMELLI "
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The plant-based immunomodulator curcumin as a potential candidate for the development of an adjunctive therapy for cerebral malaria
Mimche Patrice N,Taramelli Donatella,Vivas Livia
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-s1-s10
Abstract: The clinical manifestations of cerebral malaria (CM) are well correlated with underlying major pathophysiological events occurring during an acute malaria infection, the most important of which, is the adherence of parasitized erythrocytes to endothelial cells ultimately leading to sequestration and obstruction of brain capillaries. The consequent reduction in blood flow, leads to cerebral hypoxia, localized inflammation and release of neurotoxic molecules and inflammatory cytokines by the endothelium. The pharmacological regulation of these immunopathological processes by immunomodulatory molecules may potentially benefit the management of this severe complication. Adjunctive therapy of CM patients with an appropriate immunomodulatory compound possessing even moderate anti-malarial activity with the capacity to down regulate excess production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules, could potentially reverse cytoadherence, improve survival and prevent neurological sequelae. Current major drug discovery programmes are mainly focused on novel parasite targets and mechanisms of action. However, the discovery of compounds targeting the host remains a largely unexplored but attractive area of drug discovery research for the treatment of CM. This review discusses the properties of the plant immune-modifier curcumin and its potential as an adjunctive therapy for the management of this complication.
PATHOGENESIS OF MALARIA IN TISSUES AND BLOOD
Beatrice Autino,Yolanda CORBETT,Francesco Castelli,Donatella TARAMELLI
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2012.
Abstract: The clinical manifestations of severe malaria are several and occur in different anatomical sites. Both parasite- and host-related factors contribute to the pathogenicity of the severe forms of the disease. Cytoadherence of infected red blood cells to the vascular endothelium of different organs and rosetting are unique features of malaria parasites which are likely to contribute to the vascular damage and the consequent excessive inflammatory/immune response of the host. In addition to cerebral malaria or severe anaemia, which are quite common manifestation of severe malaria, clinical evidences of thrombocytopenia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), liver and kidney disease, are reported. In primigravidae from endemic areas, life threatening placental malaria may also be present.In the following pages, some of the pathogenetic aspects will be briefly reviewed and then data on selected and less frequent manifestation of severe malaria, such as liver or renal failure or ARDS will be discussed
The Lipid Moiety of Haemozoin (Malaria Pigment) and P. falciparum Parasitised Red Blood Cells Bind Synthetic and Native Endothelin-1
Nicoletta Basilico,Silvia Parapini,Francesca Sisto,Fausta Omodeo-Salè,Paolo Coghi,Fernando Ravagnani,Piero Olliaro,Donatella Taramelli
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/854927
Abstract: Endothelin1 (ET-1) is a 21-amino acid peptide produced by the vascular endothelium under hypoxia, that acts locally as regulator of vascular tone and inflammation. The role of ET-1 in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is unknown, although tissue hypoxia is frequent as a result of the cytoadherence of parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) to the microvasculature. Here, we show that both synthetic and endothelial-derived ET-1 are removed by parasitized RBC (D10 and W2 strains, chloroquine sensitive, and resistant, resp.) and native haemozoin (HZ, malaria pigment), but not by normal RBC, delipidized HZ, or synthetic beta-haematin (BH). The effect is dose dependent, selective for ET-1, but not for its precursor, big ET-1, and not due to the proteolysis of ET-1. The results indicate that ET-1 binds to the lipids moiety of HZ and membranes of infected RBCs. These findings may help understanding the consequences of parasite sequestration in severe malaria.
CRIMALDDI: a co-ordinated, rational, and integrated effort to set logical priorities in anti-malarial drug discovery initiatives
Ian C Boulton, Solomon Nwaka, Ian Bathurst, Michael Lanzer, Donatella Taramelli, Henri Vial, Christian Doerig, Kelly Chibale, Steve A Ward
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-202
Abstract: The CRIMALDDI Consortium (a European Union funded initiative) has been set up to develop, through a process of stakeholder and expert consultations, such priorities and recommendations to address them. It is hoped that the recommendations will help to guide the priorities of the European anti-malarial research as well as the wider global discovery agenda in the coming decade.On October 17th 2007, Bill & Melinda Gates called on the global malaria community to embrace "an audacious goal--to reach a day when no human being has malaria and no mosquito on earth is carrying it" [1]. This call has re-energized the global commitment on malaria, building on previous initiatives, such as the WHO Roll Back Malaria Initiative. In Europe, the need to address communicable diseases linked to poverty has been recognized in several European Union Framework Programmes starting with FP5 in 2003, and subsequently FP6 and FP7. A strong focus on anti-malarial R&D was recognized at an early stage as a critical component of these programmes. The RBM Partnership's Global Malaria Action Plan also emphasized the need for an R&D agenda [2], which subsequently led to the launch of the MalERA Initiative [3]. MalERA is a process to identify R&D priorities that will be required to meet the needs of malaria elimination. For anti-malarial drugs, it attempts to redirect some of the R&D efforts from a short-term focus on malaria control agents towards drugs that will be more appropriate for elimination programmes [4].Funding bodies consider many factors when deciding how to allocate their scarce resources. Important factors include (i) how the work will fit into a wider global research agenda, (ii) how this research agenda is responding to the needs of the disease endemic countries, and (iii) how their support is seen to be contributing in a positive and visible way to a broader global plan. The global agendas are often laid out in general and broad terms, sometimes lacking technical specificity and d
Ellagitannins of the fruit rind of pomegranate (Punica granatum) antagonize in vitro the host inflammatory response mechanisms involved in the onset of malaria
Mario Dell'Agli, Germana V Galli, Michela Bulgari, Nicoletta Basilico, Sergio Romeo, Deepak Bhattacharya, Donatella Taramelli, Enrica Bosisio
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-208
Abstract: From the methanolic extract of the fruit rind, a fraction enriched in tannins (Pg-FET) was prepared. MMP-9 secretion and expression were evaluated in THP-1 cells stimulated with haemozoin or TNF. The assays were conducted in the presence of the Pg-FET and its chemical constituents ellagic acid and punicalagin. The effect of urolithins, the ellagitannin metabolites formed by human intestinal microflora, was also investigated.Pg-FET and its constituents inhibited the secretion of MMP-9 induced by haemozoin or TNF. The effect occurred at transcriptional level since MMP-9 mRNA levels were lower in the presence of the tested compounds. Urolithins as well inhibited MMP-9 secretion and expression. Pg-FET and pure compounds also inhibited MMP-9 promoter activity and NF-kB-driven transcription.The beneficial effect of the fruit rind of Punica granatum for the treatment of malarial disease may be attributed to the anti-parasitic activity and the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory mechanisms involved in the onset of cerebral malaria.Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., Punicaceae) is used in the traditional medicine of different Asian cultures for the treatment of a variety of ailments. In Ayurvedic medicine, the plant, described under its Sanskrit name "dalima" (fruit), is considered as a "blood tonic" and used to cure parasitic infections [1]. The decoction of the root was found beneficial in fevers and chronic debility due to malaria. Moreover, the fruit rind powder was found to possess immunomodulatory properties [2].The eastern province of Orissa (India) is an area endemic for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax; malaria constitutes a major health problem for the population, in particular for those living in rural areas. Since 1998, malaria patients referring to the Ayurveda dispensary receive a herbal preparation named OMARIA, made of sun-dried rind of the immature P. granatum fruits (Pg). OMARIA (the acronym for Orissa Malaria Research Indigenous Attempt) is dis
Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area
Mario Dell'Agli, Cinzia Sanna, Patrizia Rubiolo, Nicoletta Basilico, Elisa Colombo, Maria M Scaltrito, Ousmane Ndiath, Luca Maccarone, Donatella Taramelli, Carlo Bicchi, Mauro Ballero, Enrica Bosisio
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-219
Abstract: The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains.The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17–26?μg/ml on D10 and 9–11?μg/ml on W2). Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%); and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20–22?μg/ml on D10 and 8–10?μg/ml on W2) and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0?μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively). The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15?±?0.002; 0.21?±?0.13; and 0.15?±?0.09?μg/ml (mean ± sd) depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively.This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further investigation aimed at the isolation of natural products with anti-parasitic properties.
An example of debris-flows hazard modeling using GIS
L. Melelli,A. Taramelli
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2004,
Abstract: We present a GIS-based model for predicting debris-flows occurrence. The availability of two different digital datasets and the use of a Digital Elevation Model (at a given scale) have greatly enhanced our ability to quantify and to analyse the topography in relation to debris-flows. In particular, analysing the relationship between debris-flows and the various causative factors provides new understanding of the mechanisms. We studied the contact zone between the calcareous basement and the fluvial-lacustrine infill adjacent northern area of the Terni basin (Umbria, Italy), and identified eleven basins and corresponding alluvial fans. We suggest that accumulations of colluvium in topographic hollows, whatever the sources might be, should be considered potential debris-flow source areas. In order to develop a susceptibility map for the entire area, an index was calculated from the number of initiation locations in each causative factor unit divided by the areal extent of that unit within the study area. This index identifies those units that produce the most debris-flows in each Representative Elementary Area (REA). Finally, the results are presented with the advantages and the disadvantages of the approach, and the need for further research.
Observations of Embryonic Changes in Middle and Late Stages of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  [PDF]
Muhamad Abidalla, Donatella Battaglia
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2018.63015
Abstract: The embryogenesis of lepidopteran insects has morphogenetic events accompanying the blastokinesis movements (anatrepsis and katatrepsis) in early and late stages, respectively. Katatrepsis is related to embryonic movement with yolk mass and regression of amnioserosa folds in the second half of the development cycle. The whole mount method and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) were used for analysing the embryonic developmental changes. Those changes in the middle and late embryonic periods were described and divided into eight stages: 1) Completion of segmentation and differentiation of cephalic and thoracic appendages (32 - 40 hours post-oviposition h. PO); 2) Expanded growth of cephalo-gnathal and abdominal parts (41 - 60 h. PO); 3) Completion of thoracic appendages and appearance of pleuropodia, katatrepsis (60 - 70 h. PO); 4) Pre-revolution morphogenetic movement of the cephalo-gnathal region (71 - 80 h. PO); 5) revolution of the embryo (81 - 100 h. PO); 6) Beginning of dorsal closure (101 - 115 h. PO); 7) completion of dorsal closure (116 - 120 h. PO); and 8) full-grown embryo just before hatching (121 - 144 h. PO).
COMPARISON OF SRTM ELEVATION DATA WITH CARTOGRAPHICALLY DERIVED DEMS IN ITALY
Andrea Taramelli,Paola Reichenbach,Francesca Ardizzone
Revista Geográfica Acadêmica , 2008,
Abstract: In this study we evaluated the quality of the DEM acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission(SRTM) for Italy through comparison with cartographically derived DEMs, available for the Italian territory.Comparison was carried out analyzing differences in elevation and slope angle at regional scale. Thecomparisons carried out at the regional scale disclose a general increase in slope angle values with thechange in resolution and a moderate difference in mean elevation. From these results, we highlighted thatimproved surface-based DEMs, based on advanced SAR, have vertical values that approach or exceedthat of current medium resolution surface products. Moreover, this study helps to provide a benchmarkagainst which future DEM products can be evaluated.
The Diseases of the Medici Family and the Use of Phytotherapy
Donatella Lippi
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem107
Abstract: The Medici Project is a paleopathological and historico-medical research, based on the exhumation of corpses of the Medici Family buried in the Medici Chapels (Florence, San Lorenzo). The scientific research carried out on these remains permits us to reconstruct habits and causes of death of members of this famous family of Italian Renaissance. The comparison between the literary sources and the paleopathological evidence is also important to reconstruct different therapies. Physicians, who assisted the most important persons of the Medici Family, have left a rich literature about their patients: the treatments were based on the use of plants and natural substances. Analyzing these sources is of unique importance and throws light on the therapeutical choices of the time.
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