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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 465006 matches for " Donald A Henderson "
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Preface: On the Eradication of Smallpox and the Beginning of a Public Health Career
Donald A Henderson
Public Health Reviews , 2011,
Abstract: When I was a medical student, there were few lectures on public health at our university and such was true at most. The focus was on the treatment of individual patients with limited regard for the problems of the community. But as time has passed, there has been increasing concern about the population as a whole and approaches that might be appropriate for prevention of both acute and chronic diseases, for containing the spread of infection and for fostering healthy lifestyles. Many disciplines are involved but epidemiology, being the primary discipline of public health, lends itself well to serving as a common platform in joining all the disciplinary fields. Such was the case with the smallpox eradication program. The lessons learned from this experience are very relevant to current and future issues in public health.This is undoubtedly the most exciting time in history to enter the field of public health—so much is changing and so many new opportunities are presenting as the importance of population-based public health is increasingly perceived by governments, universities, and the community as a whole. The experience of working on the eradication of smallpox was a major development in my career as it was for many colleagues who served with me. I am pleased to be able to share this experience with a new generation, which faces both enormous challenges and opportunities in disease control and health promotion.
Clinical review: Guyton - the role of mean circulatory filling pressure and right atrial pressure in controlling cardiac output
William R Henderson, Donald EG Griesdale, Keith R Walley, A William Sheel
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9247
Abstract: The support of blood flow is one of the central goals of clinical medicine, and the understanding of the regulation of blood flow is the sine qua non of cardiac physiology. Building on the foundational work of Frank and Starling, Arthur Guyton proposed that characteristics of the venous circulation were of fundamental importance in the regulation of cardiac output and thus blood flow. However, several authors have raised strong objections to Guyton's model, and more than 50 years after the publication of his model, there is still debate about whether Guyton's ideas present a viable model of cardiac control or whether several fundamental misjudgments lie at the core of Guyton's conclusions [1-4].Traditionally, the heart's accepted role has been that it not only provides the driving force for blood flow but also determines the total blood flow [5-7]. Simply stated, cardiac output is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. In this view, all pressures in the heart and circulatory system (for example, those measured in the large veins, in the cardiac chambers, and in the arteries) are derivatives of the force generated by the heart rather than independent variables that might have an influence on the heart's function and thus cardiac output.At the end of the 19th century, Frank [8] found that ventricular contractility was increased if the ventricle was stretched prior to contraction. Building on this observation, Starling and colleagues [9,10] found that increasing venous return increased stroke volume. We therefore term the ability of the heart to change its force of contraction (and stroke volume) in response to changes in venous return the Frank-Starling mechanism.The ventricle does not operate on a single Frank-Starling curve. Any heart may operate on a family of curves, each of which is defined by the afterload, inotropic state, and diastolic compliance of the heart. Changes in venous return cause the ventricle to move along a single Frank-Starling curve that i
Sauropod Necks: Are They Really for Heat Loss?
Donald M. Henderson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077108
Abstract: Three-dimensional digital models of 16 different sauropods were used to examine the scaling relationship between metabolism and surface areas of the whole body, the neck, and the tail in an attempt to see if the necks could have functioned as radiators for the elimination of excess body heat. The sauropod taxa sample ranged in body mass from a 639 kg juvenile Camarasaurus to a 25 t adult Brachiosaurus. Metabolism was assumed to be directly proportional to body mass raised to the ? power, and estimates of body mass accounted for the presence of lungs and systems of air sacs in the trunk and neck. Surface areas were determined by decomposing the model surfaces into triangles and their areas being computed by vector methods. It was found that total body surface area was almost isometric with body mass, and that it showed negative allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. In contrast, neck area showed positive allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. Tail area show negative allometry with respect to metabolic rate. The many uncertainties about the biology of sauropods, and the variety of environmental conditions that different species experienced during the groups 150 million years of existence, make it difficult to be absolutely certain about the function of the neck as a radiator. However, the functional combination of the allometric increase of neck area, the systems of air sacs in the neck and trunk, the active control of blood flow between the core and surface of the body, changing skin color, and strategic orientation of the neck with respect to wind, make it plausible that the neck could have functioned as a radiator to avoid over-heating.
The Role of Research in Viral Disease Eradication and Elimination Programs: Lessons for Malaria Eradication
Joel G. Breman,Ciro A. de Quadros,Walter R. Dowdle,William H. Foege,Donald A. Henderson,T. Jacob John,Myron M. Levine
PLOS Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000405
Abstract: By examining the role research has played in eradication or regional elimination initiatives for three viral diseases—smallpox, poliomyelitis, and measles—we derive nine cross-cutting lessons applicable to malaria eradication. In these initiatives, some types of research commenced as the programs began and proceeded in parallel. Basic laboratory, clinical, and field research all contributed notably to progress made in the viral programs. For each program, vaccine was the lynchpin intervention, but as the programs progressed, research was required to improve vaccine formulations, delivery methods, and immunization schedules. Surveillance was fundamental to all three programs, whilst polio eradication also required improved diagnostic methods to identify asymptomatic infections. Molecular characterization of pathogen isolates strengthened surveillance and allowed insights into the geographic source of infections and their spread. Anthropologic, sociologic, and behavioural research were needed to address cultural and religious beliefs to expand community acceptance. The last phases of elimination and eradication became increasingly difficult, as a nil incidence was approached. Any eradication initiative for malaria must incorporate flexible research agendas that can adapt to changing epidemiologic contingencies and allow planning for posteradication scenarios.
The Second Public Health Revolution
Henderson A
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1989,
Les Châteaux de Landiras et de Montferrand and Their Seigneurial Families—Part One: Setting, Medieval History, and Genealogy  [PDF]
Donald A. Bailey
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.22012
Abstract: Apart from Arnaud Communay’s “Genealogical Essay”, as he himself noted (1889: v), the Montferrands of the Bordeaux region have been neglected.1 The present approach to their history initiated in research on the Chateau de Landiras, whose baronial family tended to heiresses until one of them married a Montferrand. So began a four-century association of the “first and second baronies of Guyenne”! This first part will describe the socio-geographical settings of the two branches, some of their medieval experiences, and then proceed to presenting the combined genealogies—a task not previously attempted. The second part will narrate their respective and blended subsequent histories.
Les Châteaux de Landiras et de Montferrand and Their Seigneurial Families—Part Two: Two Families—One Destiny  [PDF]
Donald A. Bailey
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.23020
Abstract: Emerging from the Hundred Years’ War, the Montferrand families acquired Renaissance associations, experienced internal divisions during the Reformation, generated Bordeaux’s only saint, and came up to the Revolution with the usual noble financial challenges. Deeply opposed to the Revolution, they suffered confiscation and parcellization and barely held onto any property at all. The core estate of the Chateau de Landiras finds its modern renown in its fine grave wines.
Partial Formalization: An Approach for Critical Analysis of Definitions and Methods Used in Bulk Extraction-Based Molecular Microbial Ecology  [PDF]
Donald A. Klein
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2015.58033
Abstract: Partial formalization, which involves the development of deductive connections among statements, can be used to examine assumptions, definitions and related methodologies that are used in science. This approach has been applied to the study of nucleic acids recovered from natural microbial assemblages (NMA) by the use of bulk extraction. Six pools of bulk-extractable nucleic acids (BENA) are suggested to be present in a NMA: (pool 1) inactive microbes (abiotic-limited); (pool 2) inactive microbes (abiotic permissive, biotic-limited); (pool 3) dormant microbes (abiotic permissive, biotic-limited, but can become biotic permissive); (pool 4) in situ active microbes (the microbial community); (pool 5) viruses (virocells/virions/cryptic viral genomes); and (pool 6) extracellular nucleic acids including extracellular DNA (eDNA). Definitions for cells, the microbial community (in situ active cells), the rare biosphere, dormant cells (the microbial seed bank), viruses (virocells/virions/cryptic viral genomic), and diversity are presented, together with methodology suggested to allow their study. The word diversity will require at least 4 definitions, each involving a different methodology. These suggested definitions and methodologies should make it possible to make further advances in bulk extraction-based molecular microbial ecology.
A Mathematical Model for Nutrient Metabolic Chemistry  [PDF]
Donald A. Drew
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.96045
A model based on chemical kinetics for the rate of utilization and/or storage of carbohydrates, fats and proteins is derived and analyzed. This system is studied under different conditions of supply and usage and for short term dynamics and long term dynamics. Both the short term and long term models indicate that starting above an equilibrium threshold leads to growth of the stored species. Results from the short-term and long-term submodels show that the qualitative behavior depends on the levels of certain enzymes. The analysis of a model for enzyme dynamics indicates that the steady-state level of an enzyme should depend on the rate of supply of the substrate.
SMG1 Identified as a Regulator of Parkinson’s Disease-Associated alpha-Synuclein through siRNA Screening
Adrienne Henderson-Smith, Donald Chow, Bessie Meechoovet, Meraj Aziz, Sandra A. Jacobson, Holly A. Shill, Marwan N. Sabbagh, John N. Caviness, Charles H. Adler, Erika D. Driver-Dunckley, Thomas G. Beach, Hongwei Yin, Travis Dunckley
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077711
Abstract: Synucleinopathies are a broad class of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of intracellular protein aggregates containing α-synuclein protein. The aggregated α-synuclein protein is hyperphosphorylated on serine 129 (S129) compared to the unaggregated form of the protein. While the precise functional consequences of S129 hyperphosphorylation are still being clarified, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that S129 phosphorylation is an early event in α-synuclein dysfunction and aggregation. Identifying the kinases and phosphatases that regulate this critical phosphorylation event may ultimately prove beneficial by allowing pharmacological mitigation of synuclein dysfunction and toxicity in Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies. We report here the development of a high-content, fluorescence-based assay to quantitate levels of total and S129 phosphorylated α-synuclein protein. We have applied this assay to conduct high-throughput loss-of-function screens with siRNA libraries targeting 711 known and predicted human kinases and 206 phosphatases. Specifically, knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinase SMG1 resulted in significant increases in the expression of pS129 phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn). Moreover, SMG1 protein levels were significantly reduced in brain regions with high p-syn levels in both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD). These findings suggest that SMG1 may play an important role in increased α-synuclein pathology during the course of PDD, DLB, and possibly other synucleinopathies.
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