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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 998 matches for " Dominic Agyei "
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Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo
Isaac Monney,Dominic Agyei,Wellington Owusu
Foods , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/foods2030282
Abstract: With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%), protection of food from flies and dust (55%); proper serving of food (100%); good hand hygiene (63%); and the use of personal protective clothing (52%). The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association ( p < 0.05) with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.
A Simple Microfluidic Chip Design for Fundamental Bioseparation
Alan S. Chan,Michael K. Danquah,Dominic Agyei,Patrick G. Hartley,Yonggang Zhu
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/175457
Abstract: A microchip pressure-driven liquid chromatographic system with a packed column has been designed and fabricated by using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The liquid chromatographic column was packed with mesoporous silica beads of Ia3d space group. Separation of dyes and biopolymers was carried out to verify the performance of the chip. A mixture of dyes (fluorescein and rhodamine B) and a biopolymer mixture (10?kDa Dextran and 66?kDa BSA) were separated and the fluorescence technique was employed to detect the movement of the molecules. Fluorescein molecule was a nonretained species and rhodamine B was attached onto silica surface when dye mixture in deionized water was injected into the microchannel. The retention times for dextran molecule and BSA molecule in biopolymer separation experiment were 45?s and 120?s, respectively. Retention factor was estimated to be 3.3 for dextran and 10.4 for BSA. The selectivity was 3.2 and resolution was 10.7. Good separation of dyes and biopolymers was achieved and the chip design was verified. 1. Introduction High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a widely used separation technique with numerous implementations in both preparative and analytical systems [1–4]. A wide variety of chromatography media available provides different requirements for various molecular separation modes. The miniaturized HPLC system would offer the advantage of smaller sample size, reduction of dead volume, lower solvent consumption, faster, higher-throughput analysis, and portability of the analytical system, enabling on-site and remote analysis [5, 6]. Despite these advantages, miniaturization of chromatographic systems needs to address some technical issues such as fabrication of chip-based chromatographic systems without compromising separation efficiency [6]. One such challenge is the introduction of stationary phase materials into a microfabricated microchannel [7]. Numerous examples of chip-based chromatographic systems in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications have been reviewed extensively [6, 8–10]. Open-tubular liquid chromatography microchips integrated with a sample injector and electrode demonstrated low chromatographic efficiency [11]. The low efficiency could be attributed to small surface area and relatively large injection volume of the system. A microfabricated device with C18 coated channels was used to demonstrate on-chip phase extraction [12]. However, using a separation column packed with beads may yield better separation efficiency because of higher available surface area per unit volume and reduced
Insecticide resistance profiles for malaria vectors in the Kassena-Nankana district of Ghana
Francis Anto, Victor Asoala, Thomas Anyorigiya, Abraham Oduro, Martin Adjuik, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Dominic Dery, Langbong Bimi, Abraham Hodgson
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-81
Abstract: Indoor resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected. Blood-fed and gravid females were allowed to oviposit, eggs hatched and larvae reared to 1–3 days old adults and tested against permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, cyfluthrin 0.15%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.1% and DDT 4%, based on WHO methodology. PCR analyses were carried out on a sub-sample of 192 of the An. gambiae for sibling species complex determination. Resistance to pyrethroids and DDT was determined by genotyping the knock-down resistance kdr gene mutations in the study area.A total of 9,749 1–3 days-old F1 female Anopheles mosquitoes were exposed to the insecticides. Among the pyrethroids, permethrin, 0.75% had the least knockdown effect, whilst cyfluthrin 0.15%, had the highest knock-down effect. Overall, no difference in susceptibility between An. gambiae 93.3% (95% CI: 92.5–94.1) and An. funestus 94.5% (95% CI: 93.7–95.3) was observed when exposed to the pyrethroids. Similarly, there was no difference in susceptibility between the two vector species (An. gambiae = 79.1% (95% CI: 76.6–81.8) and An. funestus = 83.5% (95% CI: 80.2–86.4) when exposed to DDT. Overall susceptibility to the insecticides was between 80% and 98%, suggesting that there is some level of resistance, except for cyfluthrin 0.15%. The kdr PCR assay however, did not reveal any kdr mutations. The analysis also revealed only the molecular M (Mopti) form.The findings in this study show that An. gambiae and An. funestus, the main malaria vector mosquitoes in the Kassena-Nankana district are susceptible to the insecticides being used in the treatment of bed nets in the malaria control programme. There is however, the need for continuous monitoring of the pyrethroids as the efficacy is not very high.Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. The strategy of the National Malaria Control Programme is based on effective case management and the use of insecticide treated bed nets among vulnerable groups, such as children under five years o
Patterns and seasonality of malaria transmission in the forest-savannah transitional zones of Ghana
Dominic B Dery, Charles Brown, Kwaku Asante, Mohammed Adams, David Dosoo, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Mike Wilson, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-314
Abstract: A total of 23,406 mosquitoes were caught from 919 traps over the two-year period (November 2003 to November 2005): 54.3% were Culicines, 36.2% Anopheles funestus, and 9.4% Anopheles gambiae. Infection rates with Plasmodium falciparum were 4.7% and 1.5% for Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, respectively. Entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) were 269 infective bites per person per year in the first year (November 2003-October 2004) and 231 the following year (November 2004-November 2005). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis detected only Anopheles gambiae s.s. Nineteen mosquitoes were tested by PCR in the wet season; 16 were S-molecular form, 2 M-molecular form and 1 hybrid (S/M). In the dry season, sixteen mosquitoes were tested; 11 S-molecular form, 2 M-molecular form and 3 S/M hybrids. The frequency of knock down resistance (kdr) genotypes F(R) was 0.60.The dynamics and seasonal abundance of malaria vectors in the Kintampo area was influenced by micro-ecology, rainfall and temperature patterns. Transmission patterns did not differ significantly between the two years (2004 and 2005) and both Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus were identified as effective vectors. EIR estimates in 2004/2005 were between 231 and 269 infective bites per person per year. The information provided by the study will help in planning intensified malaria control activities as well as evaluating the impact of malaria interventions in the middle belt of Ghana.Malaria remains a major public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa as the most efficient vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l, continues to adapt to humans [1] and is a complex of sibling species taxa, thus resulting in a high vectorial capacity. The complex consists of seven species that vary in their ability to transmit malaria [2]. Currently known sibling species within the complex include An. gambiae s.s. Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles merus, Anopheles quadrianulantus (A and B) and Anopheles bwambae. Th
Stress among Nursing and Midwifery Students Offering a Top-Up Module in the University of Health and Allied Health Sciences, Ho  [PDF]
Francis Wadga-Mieza Yankey, Dominic Agyei Dankwah, Lily Adu-Aboagye, Anthony Asempah, Emmanuel Barima Agyemang Prempeh, Samuel Forkuo, Gifty Aba Doe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103318
Abstract:
Previous studies have posited that students studying in medical-related fields are particularly susceptible to high levels of academic stress with implication for both psychological and physical health. This study set in the environment of a newly established public university in Ghana, seeks to evaluate the levels and component stress among students offering nursing and midwifery in the top-up module in the University of Health and Allied Science, Ho. In descriptive study using a modified version of the pre-validated College Undergraduate Stress Scale, 315 second and third year Midwifery 82 (26.03%), Nursing 155 (49.21%) and Public Health Nursing 78 (24.76%) students obtaining bachelors degree in top-up module were surveyed for this study. Among the total study population, 109 (34.60%) experienced high stress level, 106 (33.65%) experienced moderate stress level and 100 (31.75%) experienced less stress level. Stress levels were higher among the female participants. Participants with children under 13 years and female participants with breastfeeding babies showed higher levels of stress. A majority of students in the sandwich top-up bachelor degree programme experience moderate to high stress mostly due to curriculum overload. Therefore, innovative means should be sought to lessen the level of stress among this category of students. For example, pre-recorded video lectures could be incorporated into the module to lessen the overload in school work.
Epidemiology of malaria in the forest-savanna transitional zone of Ghana
Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kwaku Asante, Martin Adjuik, George Adjei, Elizabeth Awini, Mohammed Adams, Sam Newton, David Dosoo, Dominic Dery, Akua Agyeman-Budu, John Gyapong, Brian Greenwood, Daniel Chandramohan
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-220
Abstract: Active surveillance of clinical malaria was carried out in a cohort of children below five years of age (n = 335) and the prevalence of malaria was estimated in a cohort of subjects of all ages (n = 1484) over a 12-month period. Participants were sampled from clusters drawn around sixteen index houses randomly selected from a total of about 22,000 houses within the study area. The child cohort was visited thrice weekly to screen for any illness and a blood slide was taken if a child had a history of fever or a temperature greater than or equal to 37.5 degree Celsius. The all-age cohort was screened for malaria once every eight weeks over a 12-month period. Estimation of Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR) and characterization of Anopheline malaria vectors in the study area were also carried out.The average parasite prevalence in the all age cohort was 58% (95% CI: 56.9, 59.4). In children below five years of age, the average prevalence was 64% (95% CI: 61.9, 66.0). Geometric mean parasite densities decreased significantly with increasing age. More than 50% of all children less than 10 years of age were anaemic. Children less than 5 years of age had as many as seven malaria attacks per child per year. The attack rates decreased significantly with increasing cut-offs of parasite density. The average Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) was of 6.1. All three pyrimethamine resistance mutant alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dhfr gene were prevalent in this population and 25% of infections had a fourth mutant of pfdhps-A437G. The main vectors were Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae and the EIR was 269 infective bites per person per year.The transmission of malaria in the forest-savanna region of central Ghana is high and perennial and this is an appropriate site for conducting clinical trials of anti-malarial drugs and vaccines.Over 500 million episodes of malaria occur yearly, predominantly in sub-Saharan African children under five years of age, resulting in the d
Determination of surface fluxes using a Bowen ratio system
VCK Kakane, EK Agyei
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2006,
Abstract: Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined using a Campbell Bowen ratio system. The fluxes are obtained by the energy balance Bowen ratio technique, a gradient method that uses vertical gradients of temperature and vapour pressure in combination with point measurements of net radiation and soil heat flow from two sets of soil sensors. The Bowen ratio was measured as the ratio of air temperature and vapour pressure gradients between two fixed heights within 6 m of the surface. Net radiation (Rn) was measured using net radiometers. Soil heat flux (Qg) was measured with ground heat flux plates and the change in energy storage of the layer of soil above the heat flux plates was computed using direct measurements of soil temperature and moisture content. Measurements made every 20 min are stored in the Campbell data logger. Results show most of the net radiation is converted to latent heat when there are more water available for evaporation. Estimates of sensible and latent heat flux have an accuracy of ± 10% of the measured value.
Conventional Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery  [PDF]
Dominic Emerson, Gregory Trachiotis
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2016.64010
Abstract: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains one of the most common procedures worldwide, and remains the gold standard therapy for symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) that involves the left main coronary artery, triple vessel CAD with or without left ventricular dysfunction, and other complex coronary CAD not amenable to percutaneous intervention, especially in diabetic patients or those with chronic total coronary occlusion. The majority of CABG operations are performed utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass, though beating heart or off-pump strategies have gained popularity by some surgeons. This review focuses on current technical strategies, and advances in conduit harvest and utility, and fundamental management components of cardiopulmonary bypass and beating heart principles.
Determinants of Tax Evasion: Empirical Evidence from Ghana  [PDF]
Bismark Ameyaw, Dominic Dzaka
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.714145
Abstract: For decades, researchers of tax systems and taxation as a whole are in a dilemma on the factors affecting taxpayers’ noncompliant behaviors. Numerous experimental and survey results concluded by tax researchers have identified characteristics of noncompliant taxpayers because tax revenues are seen as a major source of income in funding government expenditures. Globalization has called for a huge demand for numerous public services thereby forcing governments into increasing tax revenues to finance these projects. The demand of public service by government and taxpayers shifts the burden of taxes to taxpayers. The gap between tax revenues and tax expenditures are swelling thereby ensuring unbalanced government budgets due to taxpayers’ noncompliance. Understanding the causes of tax evasion calls for research into taxpayers’ reasons for evading taxes. The main aim of the study is investigating factors that have a detrimental effect on tax evasion in Ghana. In coming out with such factors, this research employed multiple regression techniques and factor analysis. The empirical results obtained from the analysis revealed that taxation and fiscal factors, demographic factors, administrative factors and economics factors are the main factors that have a significant effect on the evasion of taxes.
Experimental Evaluation of the Attenuation Effect of a Passive Damper on a Road Vehicle Bumper  [PDF]
A. Agyei-Agyemang, G. Y. Obeng, P. Y. Andoh
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.23021
Abstract: To mitigate the degree of damage to passengers caused by automobile collisions, a friction damper was built and used in experimental tests to test its effectiveness in impact energy attenuation. The study revealed that energy absorption capacity of a bumper can be improved with the addition of a friction damper. The results revealed that the addition of the friction damper to an automobile bumper to give a bumper-damper system could attenuate about 32.5 % more energy than with the bumper alone. It can be concluded that the effectiveness of automobile bumpers to withstand impact of vehicles by absorbing the kinetic energy from the impact can be improved with the use of a passive friction damper. That is, a passive friction damper system could be used to attenuate more road vehicle impact energy in collisions.
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