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The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2013.32012
Abstract: This review suggests the concept of the best available technology of water/wastewater treatment and seawater desalination which is in fact a simulation of the seawater distillation at the open sky: coagulation in salty water aerated basin/ coagulation using seawater as coagulant solution with distillation using stored solar energy followed by waterfall on a natural mountain. This natural, green, and technico-economical technology is composed of three steps: the first one is coagulation which may be achieved: 1) in salty water aerated basin (air stripping, AS; dissolved air flotation, DAF) where the raw water is diluted in seawater; or 2) in conventional coagulation using seawater as coagulant solution instead of alum/ferric salts. The first option seems to be more natural as it simulates river water dilution in seawater and the second one is more practical for rapid water consummation. For colloids and microorganisms’ removal, double-layer compression and charge neutralisation, as main coagulation and disinfection mechanisms, would be involved in the first and second options, respectively. Aerated basin (AS/DAF) reproduces the natural aeration to simulate healthy natural water basin. Using stored solar energy, distillation as the best liquid-solid/liquid-liquid separation process provides the removal of dissolved pollutants. For well balanced calco-carbonic equilibrium, the last step of this green treatment is the waterfall on a natural mountain providing useful gases, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, and mineral salts to the water.
Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection Using Ferrate(VI)  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105946
Disinfection, chemical oxidation, and coagulation are key methods in water treatment. A chemical that may be used for all these targets is ferrate(VI). This work tries to bring some light into mechanisms implied throughout killing microbes using ferrate(VI). In acidic pH, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI) is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. The technology of using ferrate(VI) for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Ferrate(VI) allows a novel emergency water treatment design for disaster-affected populations through the repercussions of natural disasters, through the concurrent and efficient elimination of microbial and chemical pollutants. The ferrates’ elevated performance and utilization as a green element for water treatment propose that these techniques remain greatly convenient for usage as pre- or post-treatment in traditional wastewater plants. It seems that there is no big difference in terms of ferrate’s action on pathogens with other chemical disinfectants. However, ferrate was found to be requiring lower needed doses as compared with other chemicals. More researches on disinfection by-products formation following ferrate injection as a disinfectant are required. Finally, ferrate(VI) deserves more attention to be used more largely through worldwide wastewater treatment plants.
Drinking Water Reuse: One-Step Closer to Overpassing the “Yuck Factor”  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri, Saad Ghareba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105895
Water shortage, because of either augmented domestication or climatic variability, has prompted nations to diminish stress on water supplies mostly via decreasing water demand. Nevertheless, this procedure entirely is not enough to ensure the quality of life that high-quality water services boost, particularly inside the case of augmented domestication. Intrinsically, the notion of water reuse (WR) has been reaching strength for the last few decades. Decision-makers require ready and reachable data concerning public attitudes toward WR to adopt convenient and sustainable resource management plans. Applying reclaimed infrastructure must concentrate firstly on usages with more important social acceptability, like street cleaning, car washing, irrigation of parks and athletic fields or toilet flushing. Acceptance of the usage of recycled water for other goals implementations, like food crop irrigation and watering of residential lawns may augment as public knowledge of the system expands. As inhabitants begin to be more usual with the techniques and global comprehension of the linked advantages of WR increases, officials, planners, and managers may encounter reduced objection to extra usages and attain bigger water savings via prolonged application of WR schedules. For potable WR, there is only one-step closer to overpassing the “yuck factor”. However, great efforts remain to be accomplished in mater of hybrid water technologies to assure efficient pollutant removal. Finally, WR may be considered a safe tool to avoid water sources’ contamination. In other words, treating wastewater at its source of generation before its expansion at the highest level of purity will avoid pollution expansion into nature: air, soil, and water. In this case and only in this case, the “yuck factor” will be overpassed.
Relationship between cation exchange capacity and the saline phase of Cheliff sol  [PDF]
Djamel Saidi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.33051
Abstract: T Measurements of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) show significant soil properties, in particular its ability to retain the cations because of their mobility in the soil. Thirteen soil samples rich in electrolytes of the Cheliff plain (Algeria) were analyzed in order to measure their CEC and to draw up the existing relationship between texture, organic matter content and pH. In calcareous soils, the CECe values are always higher than those measured at pH 7. Regression equations using the percentages of organic carbon and clay as independent variables would make it possible to estimate 90% of the variability of the CEC measured in the ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7 and 89% of the variability for that measured at the pH of the soil. These percentages are particularly useful due to the fact that they make it possible to estimate the CEC of the soil according to the pH only starting from the organic matter and texture. The correlations between the salinity indices, the parameters of the saline phase and the physical properties, show that the cobalt-hexamine method makes it possible to characterize the soil of this plain with more precision than the Metson method. It constitutes a means for following-up the chemical quality of the soil. The Metson method makes it possible to approach the reactivity of the soil in relation with the geometry of the components. The measurement of the CEC at pH 7 makes it possible to envisage the water content at the permanent wilting point of the plants. Finally, it is noticed that a sodisation of the adsorbing compound, which consequently generates a reduction in the structural stability and a reduction in the infiltration always leads to the salinity in these soil types.
Rehabilitation as a Catalyst of Sustaining a Living Heritage: The Case of Souk Waqif in Doha, Qatar  [PDF]
Djamel Boussaa
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2014.23008
Abstract: In recent years, mixed use urban fabric has become one of the new concerns of urban planners, urban designers, and architects. In many historic centers, urban diversity has been achieved spontaneously and it responded to the local needs of people at that time. However, today this urban space diversity is being seriously threatened. Souk Waqif, is one of the last surviving historic urban spaces in Doha. Due to the rapid urbanisation following the discovery of oil in 1939 and the beginning of its exportation in 1949, many houses in the Souk have been abandoned to become shelters for low income workers. Overcrowding, neglect, and lack of maintenance have resulted in more dilapidation of the souk and make it look like an urban slum in the heart of Doha. This paper attempts to assess the level of diversity of urban spaces existing in the souk and tries to identify if they form threats to its authenticity. This research is based on empirical research, onsite observations and interviews with the users. The outcomes of the survey and of site visits can inform us about the quality of the area and how it can be enhanced in the future.
Hydrological Study of Watersheds Arid and Semi-Arid South-Eastern Algeria (Chott Melghir, Chott El Hodna and Highlands Constantine)  [PDF]
Fares Belagoune, Djamel Boutoutaou
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.410145

The objective of the study is to establish the hydrological characteristics, the hydrological behavior of river basins in arid and semi-arid south-eastern Algeria (establish of methodologies and necessary working tools for planning the development and management of water resources). The study on floods in Algeria is established by the National Agency of Water Resources (ANRH shows that the country is confronted with the phenomenon of very destructive floods and floods especially in arid and semi-arid regions). Flooding of rivers in these areas is less known. They are characterized by their sudden duration (rain showers, thunderstorm). The duration of the flood is in the order of minutes to hours. The human and material damages caused by these floods are still high. The study area encompasses three watersheds in semi-arid, arid south and Algeria. There are pools of Chott-Melghir (68,751 km2), highland Constantine-07 (9578 km2) and El Hodna-05 basin (25,843 km2). The total area of this zone is about 104,500km2.

Recovery of Heavy Metal Using Solvent Impregnated Resin (SIR) Coupled with Donnan Dialysis  [PDF]
Dalila Berdous, Djamel Eddine Akretche
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.310103
Abstract: A membrane process for metal recovery from aqueous solutions was studied. Metal ions diffused from the feed compartment to the stripping compartment through an hybrid Donnan dialysis which consists to combine two ion exchange membranes with solvent impregnated resin (SIR). The aim of this work is to study the recovery of Pb(II), Ag(I) and Cu(II) from nitrate solutions by using SIR combined with classical Donnan dialysis. The resin has been prepared by impregnating the Amberlite XAD-4 using three different extractants namely: di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphine acide (D2EHPA), tris-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and Diphenylthiourea (DPT). Experiments were performed as a function of nature of the extractant impregnated on the XAD-4 resin as well as the concentration in the resin phase, the stripping pH, the concentration ratio of metal ions in the feed compartment and the nature of the counter ions in strip compartment. The results show that the D2EHPA is the better extractant for the metal ions used in this work, and it’s shown a good selectivity for the separation between ions.
Surfaces Characterization by Ionic Bombardment
Djamel Boubetra
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The causes for the Anisotropy in the angle distribution of sprayed atoms is yet extensively unexplained. Therefore experimental investigations should be carried out to this question. The ions beam was used for comparing investigation between the distributions of back steered ions and sprayed atoms. We know that the pulverization of crystals shows an anisotropic angular distribution of pulverized atoms. The appearance of this phenomenon is initiated once Wehner spots are obtained by putting a receptor in front of the sample, which shows a correlation with the principal crystallographic axes. Another study shows, that till now the studies and works already done are not strongly founded in the sense of the correspondence of the Wehner spots and the principal axes of the crystals. Measurements are represented in many works and during the last years detailed studies on gold crystals (111). Principally the gold atoms emissions have appeared in the directions (110) and (111) for which the intensity to energy ratio of projectile ions is modified. Emissions directions are to be maintained in addition to representations and for omitted raisons directions changes have to be taken into account. After the studies of deviations in the emission directions appear during the copper crystals pulverization. The authors allocate this fact to the influence of the forces of superficial links which should generally lead to a preference of the particles emission in the normal direction to the surface. The question is who it makes that the link ratio for different crystals directions have a different response; however, it is shown that the application of an ionic beam emitter, to examine the interference of the direction emissions of the pulverized atoms with principal crystallographic axes, is necessary.
Development of Ion Source with Cold Cathode for Sputtering
Djamel Boubetra
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Ion sources are of practical importance for scientific research and industrial applications. The developed ion sources are used for evaporation on single crystals. We present in this research the construction and the optimisation of a low-energy ion radiation source. Which supplies a high ion current density using a cold cathode with low power. The physical aspects and the different possibilities for resolution of the problem are discussed with investigations on the parameters of the developed Duoplasmatron source. The conception is achieved by experimental investigations on selected construction versions. We show an interesting experimental results concerning the relation between the pressure and volume of the hollow cathode. The results are compared to those obtained by mass spectrometry at Penning and glow cathode ion source.
La bande dessinée comme support didactique dans l’enseignement du FLE
Bendiha Djamel
Synergies Algerie , 2007,
Abstract: L’enfant d’aujourd’hui vit dans l’image, il se nourrit d’images et s’exprime par des images ; il est constamment sollicité par la télévision, les af ches, les bandes dessinées. Sa fa on de parler emprunte plus au langage informatique ou à la bande dessinée qu’au livre traditionnel. Son expression relève plus du visuel que de l’ordre des mots dans une phrase.Ce penchant pour l’image et surtout pour les comics peut constituer un ensemble d’activités pédagogiques exploitables dans une classe de langue. Il serait aberrant de passer sous silence cet intérêt manifeste de l’enfant apprenant pour tout ce qui est image. Si nos enfants sont capables de passer des heures devant la télévision, nous pensons que ce go t peut déclencher des pratiques langagières au sein desquelles il est possible, voire nécessaire, de prendre conscience du système linguistique.
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