Abstract:
The present study considers an elastic-plastic contactanalysis of a deformable sphere with a rigid flat using finiteelement method. The effect of strain hardening on the contactbehaviour of a non-adhesive frictionless elastic-plastic contact isanalyzed using commercial finite element software ANSYS. Tostudy the strain hardening effect we have taken different valuesof tangent modulus. The result of strain hardening effect clearlyshows that a generalized solution can not be applicable for allkind of materials as the effect of strain hardening differentlyinfluenced the contact parameters. With the increase in the valueof hardening parameter this effect also increases. For highervalue of hardening parameter the effect of strain hardening issevere on contact parameters. With the increase in strainhardening the resistance to deformation of a material isincreased and the material becomes capable of carrying higheramount of load in a smaller contact area.

Abstract:
Earthworm has caught imagination of philosophers like Pascal and Thoreau. Yet its role in the nutrition of agricultural fields has attracted attention of researchers worldwide only in recent decades. Waste management is considered as an integral part of a sustainable society, thereby necessitating diversion of biodegradable fractions of the societal waste from landfill into alternative management processes such as vermicomposting. Earthworms excreta (vermicast) is a nutritive organic fertilizer rich in humus, NPK, micronutrients, beneficial soil microbes; nitrogen-fixing, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, actinomycets and growth hormones auxins, gibberlins & cytokinins. Both vermicompost & its body liquid (vermiwash) are proven as both growth promoters & protectors for crop plants. We discuss about the worms composting technology, its importance, use and some salient results obtained in the globe so far in this review update of vermicompost research.

Abstract:
People are excluded when they are not a part of main stream of society in their daily life due to caste, creed, religion and economic condition. This indicates that the socially excluded people are customarily shunned in the zone of employment, community, friends and family. Nobody would deny that many old age people, homeless people, people with aids, people with mental and physical disability, ex-prisoners are said to be at the risk of exclusion. In this paper we have defined excludability in terms of castes, creed, religion, economic conditions and others. We would look into the food security status reflected in consumption profile among those particular categories of people, in terms of their monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) on both food and non-food items with the help of NSSO 61st round data. Based on goal post index the consumption pattern of the socially excluded people across different states of India has been made evident. We have also tested the Engels law, and it has been found empirically accepted. Contrasted with the situation of other caste people the food security status of the socially excluded people has been found to be placed at all-time low level.

Eighty one algal taxa comprising of 24 species of Cyanophyta, 2 Rhodophyta, 19 Chlorophyta, 6 Euglenophyta and 30 Bacillariophyceae under Heterokontophyta were recorded in Chilika lagoon in different seasons of 2010-2011 in a survey after opening of new mouth to Bay of Bengal. Of these Cyanobacterium diachlloros, Aphanocapsa marina,Microsystis aeruginosa, Microsystis wesenbergii, Pseudanabena limnetica, Arthospira ambiguum, Oscillatoriaperornata, Oscillatoria proteus, Oscillatoria simplicissima under Cyanophyta, Scenedesmus bijugatus, Urenema elongatum under Chlorophyata, Trachelomonas abrupt, Trachelomonas hispida under Euglenopyta and Coscinodiscus subtilis, Navicula amphirhynchus, Navicula major,

Abstract:
Temporal behaviour of GRB afterglow light curve is derived for the case where the electron energy distribution is relatively flat, with the power-law index p lying between 1.0 and 2.0. It is shown that the expected behaviour will be the same as that for p>2.0 if the upper cutoff in the electron energy distribution evolves in direct proportion to the bulk Lorentz factor of the blast wave.

Abstract:
We have used a highly sensitive cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy technique to measure different parameters of the ultraweak transitions of a${^1}{\triangle}_g{\leftarrow}$X $^3{\Sigma}^{-}_g$ $(0,0)$ band of molecular oxygen in the range 7640 cm$^{-1}$ to 7917 cm$^{-1}$. The self-broadened half-width and air-broadened half-width of the transitions have been measured for three different pressures for both $^{16}$O$_2$ and $^{18}$O$_2$. To measure the line intensity and self-broadened half-width we have used ultra pure oxygen sample and air-broadened half-width was measured with dry air sample. The $(0,0)$ band of $^{16}$O$_2$ and $^{18}$O$_2$ show weak quadrupole transitions with line intensities ranging from $1\times10^{-30}$ to $1.9\times10^{-28}$ cm/molecule. The measurements are in excellent agreement with the recent measurement of Rothman et. al

Abstract:
Let $R=\bigoplus_{\underline{n} \in \mathbb{N}^t}R_{\underline{n}}$ be a commutative Noetherian $\mathbb{N}^t$-graded ring, and $L = \bigoplus_{\underline{n}\in\mathbb{N}^t}L_{\underline{n}}$ be a finitely generated $\mathbb{N}^t$-graded $R$-module. We prove that there exists a positive integer $k$ such that for any $\underline{n} \in \mathbb{N}^t$ with $L_{\underline{n}} \neq 0$, there exists a primary decomposition of the zero submodule $O_{\underline{n}}$ of $L_{\underline{n}}$ such that for any $P \in {\rm Ass}_{R_0}(L_{\underline{n}})$, the $P$-primary component $Q$ in that primary decomposition contains $P^k L_{\underline{n}}$. We also give an example which shows that not all primary decompositions of $O_{\underline{n}}$ in $L_{\underline{n}}$ have this property. As an application of our result, we prove that there exists a fixed positive integer $l$ such that the $0^{\rm th}$ local cohomology $H_I^0(L_{\underline{n}}) = \big(0 :_{L_{\underline{n}}} I^l\big)$ for all ideals $I$ of $R_0$ and for all $\underline{n} \in \mathbb{N}^t$.

Abstract:
Let $A$ be a Noetherian standard $\mathbb{N}$-graded algebra over an Artinian local ring $A_0$. Let $I_1,\ldots,I_t$ be homogeneous ideals of $A$ and $M$ a finitely generated $\mathbb{N}$-graded $A$-module. We prove that there exist two integers $k$ and $k'$ such that \[ \mathrm{reg}(I_1^{n_1} \cdots I_t^{n_t} M) \leq (n_1 + \cdots + n_t) k + k' \quad\mbox{for all }~n_1,\ldots,n_t \in \mathbb{N}. \]

Abstract:
This paper investigates the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI), trade openness, domestic demand, and exchange rate on the export performance of Bangladesh over the period of 1980–2009 using the vector error correction (VEC) model under the time series framework. The stationarity of the variables is checked both at the intercept and intercept plus trend regression forms under the ADF and PP stationarity tests. The Johansen-Juselius procedure is applied to test the cointegration relationship between variables followed by the VEC regression model. The empirical results trace a long-run equilibrium relationship in the variables. FDI is found to be an important factor in explaining the changes in exports both in the short run and long-run. However, the study does not trace any significant causal relationship for the cases of trade openness, domestic demand, and exchange rate. The study concludes that Bangladesh should formulate FDI-led polices to enhance its exports.