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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5287 matches for " Dingyu Chung "
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Human Cultural Evolution: Postmodernity as Rational Global Diversity  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.55022
Abstract: This paper proposes that human culture has evolved from authoritative local premodernity through rational local modernity to the coming rational global postmodernity with diverse cultural types. Premodernity, modernity, and postmodernity are the cultural adaptations to the drastic social changes from the Agricultural, Industrial, and Information Revolutions. The cultural types analogous to biological species are the nine cultural types derived from the instinctive cultural type model based on the instinctive sociality trichotomy (individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent) and the instinctive worldview trichotomy (territorial, connective, and competitive). Western culture originated from the Middle East and Greece has competitive worldview, while Eastern culture originated from India and China has connective worldview. Different cultural types have different perceptions, moralities, religions, politics, and economies. Currently, the world is the chaotic diverse global society where the cultural types clash. The coming postmodernity as rational global diversity is produced by the three rational global diverse systems. The rational global diverse system for the coming postmodern international politics is the three-tier international politics consisting of nations with geopolitical boundaries, the 12 regional communities with cultural-geographic boundaries, and the global international organizations without boundary. The rational global diverse system for the coming postmodern international trade is the trichotomic international trade containing free competitive, free connective, and fair protectionist international trades. The rational global diverse system for the coming postmodern common ground between religion and science is the cultural theology of trinity consisting of the transcendental, immanent, and imaginary cultural origins. The coming postmodernity as rational global diversity will bring rational order and peace among global diverse cultural types.
The Big Five Social System Traits as the Source of Personality Traits, MBTI, Social Styles, Personality Disorders, and Cultures  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.59019
Abstract:
This paper proposes the big five social system traits as the fixed, clear, and workable social solutions to the social issues under the different social conditions. Under the big five social system traits, different fixed and clear personal behaviors are developed by different people under different social conditions, so the big five social system traits are the source of different aspects of human behavior in terms of personality traits in the big five personality traits, personality types in the MBTI, social styles in the social style model, personality disorders in the DSM-5, social group deviances derived from the DSM-5, and religious, political, and economic systems in Western and Eastern cultures as described in this paper. The big five social system traits consist of sociality (individualistic-collectivistic-interdependent) traits to the issue of social formation, worldview traits (connective-competitive-territorial or people-tasks) to the issue of social boundary, awareness traits (concrete-imaginary) to the issue of social stress, activity traits (constructional-mobilized) to the issue of social duration, and legitimacy traits (authoritative-rational) to the issue of social uniformity. As a result, the big five social system traits provide the base for the unified theory of human behavior to unify different aspects of human behavior and to produce the common ground for diverse views to communicate.
The Mental Protection System for Protective Behaviors: The Social Brain and the Mental Immune System  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.81003
Abstract: The physical protection system of the body consists of the protective organs for vulnerable body parts-functions and the protective countermeasures against invaders (pathogens), but to survive, the body also requires the protective social groups for vulnerable social members-functions and the protective instinctive mental countermeasures against adversities such as hardship, danger, and unfamiliarity-uncertainty. As a result, this paper proposes that the mental protection system of the body consists of the social brain to set up the protective social groups for vulnerable social members-functions and the mental immune system to produce the protective mental countermeasures against adversities. This paper proposes that from the social brain, the protective social groups include alliance group for vulnerable individuals, kinship-friendship group for vulnerable children, interdependent specialists group for vulnerable pregnant females, territorial group for social boundary, connective group for social connection, and competitive group for social competition. From the mental immune system, the mental protective countermeasures include comforter against hardship, hyperactivity against danger, phobia against unfamiliarity-uncertainty, and rationality against unfamiliarity-uncertainty. The overactive mental immune system causes mental allergies and auto immune diseases as personality-mental disorders against ubiquitous harmful and harmless perceived adversities, correlating to physical allergies and auto immune diseases against ubiquitous harmful and harmless detected invaders. The mental protection system also produces personality traits, social moralities, social organizations, social systems, religions, and cultures as described in this paper. The mental protective system is the source of protective behaviors.
The Eight Stages of Psychosocial Protective Development: Developmental Psychology  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.86024
Abstract: The proposed universal psychological mechanism for developmental psychology is the mental protective system whose different parts emerge and mature in the eight different stages of psychosocial protective development under different social interactions. The proposed eight stages of psychosocial protective development are childhood (infancy, toddlerhood, pre-juvenile age, and juvenile age), adolescence, early young adulthood, late young adulthood, early middle adulthood, late middle adulthood, early late adulthood, and late late adulthood. The mental protection system consists of four socialities (collectivistic, individualistic, interdependent, and generativity), three worldviews (territorial, competitive, and cooperative), and the mental immune system for four regulated and unregulated countermeasures (hyperactivity, phobia, comforter, and rationality) against adversities. During childhood, dependent children have collectivistic sociality under the protection of committed parents and territorial worldview with the boundary of family. Children start with the unregulated mental immune system without delayed gratification due to mental immaturity, and gradually acquire the regulated mental immune system with delayed gratification through mental maturity. Adolescents transit to adulthood. Independent adults have the regulated metal immune system, individualistic sociality with reciprocity, and competitive-cooperative worldviews without boundary. After the age of 50, older people as elder leaders-mentors develop generativity sociality to protect next generation. The paper shows that the mental protective system as the universal psychological mechanism for developmental psychology explains clearly psychosocial protective development, the human evolution, the Piaget’s cognitive development, the Erikson’s psychosocial (ego-social) development, the Confucius’ (educated person’s) six milestones of life, and parent-child relation in the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and Confucianism.
Evolutionary Origin of Religions and Religious Evolution: Religious Neurosociology  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.89030
Abstract: The paper proposes that the evolutionary origin of religions is based on theory of mind as the product of interdependent division of labor between the forest specialist group (women and small children) and the woodland specialist group (men) in early hominins who lived in the mixed forest-woodland habitat. To complement each other’s work without interfering each other’s work, one specialist group had to recognize (imagine) that the other specialist group existed to think for themselves and to do different works. The result was theory of mind which is to recognize (imagine) that the others exist to think for themselves. (The forest-woodland groups became the hunter-gatherer groups for the Homo species in the savanna habitat.) Under existential pressure, hominins invented imaginary specialists as imaginary agents who existed to think for themselves and to do different works in imaginary division of labor to enhance survival chance. The result was religion with imaginary behaviors. Therefore, religion is defined as a set of beliefs and behaviors based on theory of mind that produces a shared imagination to enhance survival chance under existential pressure. This paper proposes that the religious evolution consists of the premodern imaginative religion for local society habitat starting from bipedalism, the modern rational imaginative religion for regional society habitat starting from the Axial Age, and the postmodern diverse rational imaginative religion for global society habitat starting from the Information Revolution. In conclusion, the religious brain is the imaginative brain, and the religious social behaviors are imaginary social behaviors. The religious evolution is the evolution of human imagination to enhance survival chance under existential pressure, such as the religious reinforcement of social bonds to enhance the survival chance of social group and the religious relief of stress and anxiety to enhance the survival chance of individuals.
Evolutionary Origin of Politics and Political Evolution: Neuropolitics  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.810033
Abstract: The paper proposes that the evolutionary origin of politics is based on imaginary prosocial societies for large-scale cooperation at the beginning of civilization established by large-scale civilized social groups. According to Dunbar, the size of the human brain is adapted to the manageable group size of about 150 people (Dunbar’s Number). A manageable large-scale civilized social group much more than 150 people could not exist sustainably. To enhance group survival chance under such existential group-size pressure, large-scale civilized social groups invented politics for large-scale cooperation based on imaginary prosocial societies which founded prosocial religions of ancestor worship and high gods to enforce prosociality. (In modern times, imaginary prosocial societies founded secular nationalisms with elaborate rituals, monuments, and devotions to enforce prosociality.) This imaginary prosocial society became the foundation for a large-scale social group to establish a civilized social order for large-scale cooperation. Therefore, politics is defined as a civilized social order for large-group cooperation based on a shared imaginary prosocial society to enhance group survival chance under existential group-size pressure. Under politics with civilized social order, all types of large-scale cooperation became possible. In this paper, neuropolitics as the combination of neuroscience and political science is based on the political brain derived from the social brain through imagination and rationality. It explains the evolutionary origin of politics and the political evolution. The political imagination for imaginary prosocial society is derived from theory of mind that generates an imaginary prosocial society to have its own mind in its own imaginary world. The political rationality is derived from the rational brain that generates subjective rationality to defend a political view and objective rationality to create a new political view dialectically.
The Evolution of Theisms: The Four Technological Revolutions and the Four Theistic Revolutions  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.74018
Abstract: This paper posits that in the evolution of theisms, the main function of theism is to pacify enlarged social structure derived from technological revolution. Therefore, the four technological revolutions (the Upper Paleolithic, Agricultural-Bronze, Iron, and Industrial Revolutions) produce the four enlarged social structures (linked egalitarian bands, decentralized union of hierarchical states, mega centralized empire, and global human community, respectively) whose internal conflicts to be pacified by the four theistic revolutions (the Egalitarian Band, Pluralistic State, Top-down Imperial, and Bottom-up Community Theistic Revolutions, respectively, for the egalitarian band, pluralistic state, top-down imperial, and bottom-up community theisms, respectively). This paper deals with the evolution of theisms in accordance of a biological understanding of evolution in terms of natural selection. For natural selection of the evolution of theisms through individual human innovations, theism better adapted to their environment, mainly, the technological revolution, tends to survive and propagate. In conclusion, biological evolution, the evolution of theisms, and bottom-up community theism are bottom-up processes involving bottom-up organisms’ efforts.
The Mental Origins and the Evolution of Political Order  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.96018
Abstract: The paper proposes that the four-component structure of political order consists of state, imagination, rule, and accountability whose mental origins are the social brain, theory of mind, the rational brain, and the empirical brain, respectively. The rational brain and the empirical brain are from the thinking brain. This paper posits that in the evolution of political order, the main function of political order is to pacify changed social structure derived from technological revolution. Therefore, the four technological revolutions (the Upper Paleolithic, Agricultural-Bronze, Iron, and Industrial Revolutions) produce the four changed social structures (linked bands, tribe, mega empire, and modern nation, respectively) whose internal conflicts are pacified by the four political revolutions (the imaginative, hierarchical, thinking, bottom-up political revolutions, respectively) to form the four politics (the imaginative egalitarianism, decentralized hierarchical tribalism, centralized top-down thinking, and multilateral bottom-up thinking politics, respectively). In the competitive West originated from Greece and Middle East, the rule of law is the rational rule of competition among competitors, and the accountability of election is the empirical accountability of competition among competitors. In the cooperative East originated from India and China, the rule of relation is the rational rule of cooperation among kin-friends, and the accountability of professional qualification is the empirical accountability of cooperation among kin-friends. For political order, the two viable politics are competitive liberal democracy based on liberty and cooperative well-off democracy (well-off socialism) based on wellbeing. The direction of political order is middle democracy between liberal democracy and well-off democracy based on the multilateral bottom-up thinking politics.
Democracies and International Relations  [PDF]
Dingyu Chung
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.77023
Abstract: This paper proposes the five different democracies and their international relations. Democracy literally means that power (kratos) belongs to the common people (demos) instead of dictators and inherited kings-aristocrats. Different types of powers and different types of the common people constitute different types of democracies. Within a democratic nation, the intergroup relation among different social groups can be competitive or cooperative. The most conventional democracy is liberal democracy where power, intergroup relation, and people are liberty, competition, and all people, respectively. The power of the liberty to compete belongs to all people. All people have liberty to compete. Democracies in general are the combinations of different powers (elitism, tradition, liberty, equality, and wellbeing), different intergroup relations (competition and cooperation), and different people (few, most, and all). Therefore, depending on powers, intergroup relations, and people, the five democracies are elite democracy (elitism, competition, few people), nationalist democracy (tradition, competition, most people), liberal democracy (liberty, competition, all people), socialist democracy (equality, competition, all people), and relationalist democracy (wellbeing, cooperation, all people). Different people in different times, cultures, and political situations have different democracies. Each democracy has advantages and deficiencies. The democracies today are mostly mixed democracies to minimize deficiencies. The optimal mixed democracies have competition, cooperation, tradition, liberty, equality, and wellbeing. International relations as international intergroup relations reflect democracies as domestic intergroup politics. Liberal, socialist, and relationalist democracies are for all people, so they can generate cooperative international orders (liberal, socialist, and relationalist) for all nations within their respective democracies. For example, liberal democracy can generate cooperative liberal international order for all liberal democratic nations. Elite democracy and nationalist democracy are not for all people, and are against foreigners, so they can only generate competitive international relation as competitive realism. Peace and prosperity in the world can be maintained by proper international relations.
Virtual harmony
Dingyu Yang
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: This article serves a few purposes. First of all, it reviews polyfold--Kuranishi correspondence I (http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.7008) and previews and samples some results from four papers I have been preparing. It is also a written-up and expanded version of a talk I gave at a symplectic conference in Chengdu on June 28, 2015, and it intends to provide bridges and compatibility between various pairs of virtual techniques and to demonstrate some unity among various technical viewpoints in the constructions of structures on moduli spaces in symplectic geometry. More precisely, the abstract perturbative structures (or interchangeably, virtual structures) present in each virtual theory discussed in this paper (and sometimes even the way they essentially originate in applications) are identified pairwise in a way that intertwines the (non-)perturbation mechanisms. To be more helpful to readers and not get them buried under technicalities and notations, we give the ideas and appropriate level of details so that the results will be clear to the relevant experts; meanwhile the ideas of each virtual machinery and how they are related should come through to more application-minded readers so that they might get encouraged to read papers on a given virtual machinery and possibly apply it to remove some technical assumptions in their results. It is meant to be a service to the symplectic community.
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