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Isolation and Purification of L-amino Acid Oxidase from Indian Cobra Naja naja
P. Dineshkumar,B. Muthuvelan
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The enzyme L-Amino Acid Oxidase (LAAO) is widely distributed in snake venoms, contributes a reasonable toxicity to the venoms. However LAAO from Indian cobra (Naja naja) snake venom has not yet isolated previously. In the present study LAAO from Indian cobra (Naja naja) snake venom was purified by sequential steps of cation exchange chromatography (CM-Sephadex C-25; CM-52 cellulose), followed by sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme was named as Indian Cobra Naja naja LAmino Acid Oxidase (ICN-LAAO). This ICN-LAAO is a monomer and its molecular mass has been found to be 61.91 kDa determined by MALDI-TOF and 12% SDS-PAGE. The enzyme has an isoelcetric point of 8.12 and a pH optimum of 8.5. It shows remarkable thermal stability and partial inactivation by freezing. The enzyme may contribute in the development of severe hematological disorder due to cobra venom envenomation.
A comparative study of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of common anti-diabetic plants at Kharagpur 1 block
Dineshkumar B,Mitra Analava,Manjunatha M
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: In India, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on the increase and needs to be addressed appropriately. In this study area, herbal remedies are considered convenient for management of Type 2 diabetes with postprandial hyperglycemia due to their traditional acceptability and availability, low costs, lesser side effects. Comparative evaluation of alpha amylase inhibitory activities of selected plants extracts. Kharagpur is situated in the Midnapur West district of West Bengal in India. In this district, diabetes prevalence is comparatively high. Ten common plants in IIT Kharagpur 1 Block namely, Acalypha indica, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Musa sapientum, Mangifera indica, Murraya, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus and Tinospora cordifolia were tested for their alpha amylase inhibitory activities to establish anti-diabetic potentials. The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous. The extracts obtained were subjected to in vitro alpha amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate and porcine pancreatic amylase as the enzyme. Statistical difference and linear regression analysis were performed by using Graphpad prism 5 statistical software. Ethanol extracts of Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and petroleum ether extract of Murraya koenigii (at a concentrations 10-100μg/ml) showed maximum percentage inhibition on alpha amylase activity with an IC 50 value of 37.86 ± 0.32μg/ml, 62.99 ± 1.20μg/ml and 59.0 ± 0.51μg/ml respectively when compared with acarbose (IC 50 value 83.33 ± 0.75μg/ml). The results showing that Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica and Murraya koenigii might be effective in lowering post prandial hyperglycemia.
Studies on the anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic potentials of mangiferin (Xanthone Glucoside) in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic model rats
B Dineshkumar,Analava Mitra,M Manjunatha
International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.5138/154
Abstract: Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) stem bark contains a rich content of mangiferin and is used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes. To investigate anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mangiferin in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats models. Streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats. Mangiferin (at a dose 10 and 20mg/kg) was administrated intra-peritoneally in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats daily up to 30 days. Biochemical parameters notably fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were estimated. In addition, in vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects of mangiferin were performed and IC50 values were determined. Mangiferin exhibited significant (P<0.05) anti-diabetic as well as hypolipidemic effects by lowering FBS, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL levels; but also with elevation of HDL level in type 2 diabetic model rats. In addition, mangiferin showed appreciable alpha amylase inhibitory effect (IC50 value 74.35±1.9μg/ml) and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect (IC50 41.88±3.9μg/ml) when compared with standard drug acarbose (IC50 83.33±1.2μg/ml). Mangiferin showed anti-diabetic as well as hypolipidemic potentials in type 2 diabetic model rats. Therefore, mangiferin possess beneficial effects in the management of type 2 diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Mangiferin, Anti-diabetic, Hypolipidemic, Type 2 diabetes
Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid) from murraya koenigii (rutaceae) leaves
B. Dineshkumar,Analava Mitra,Manjunatha Mahadevappa
International Journal of Phytomedicine , 2011,
Abstract: Murraya koenigii leaves (Rutaceae) are used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii leaves) on blood glucose and serum lipid profiles on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (45mg/kg). Mahanimbine (50 and 100mg/kg) were administrated as a single dose per week to the diabetic rats for 30 days. The control group received 0.3% w/v sodium carboxy methyl cellulose for the same duration. Fasting blood sugar and serum lipid profiles were measured in the diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In addition, in vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects of mahanimbine were performed. Results: In the diabetic rats, the elevated fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein levels were reduced and high density lipoprotein level was increased by mahanimbine at a dose of 50 and 100mg/kg (i.p). In addition, mahanimbine showed appreciable alpha amylase inhibitory effect and weak alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects when compared with acarbose. Conclusions: The present study indicated that mahanimbine possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-lipidemic effects. Thus results suggesting mahanimbine has beneficial effect in the management of diabetes associated with abnormal lipid profile and related cardiovascular complications. Keywords: Streptozotocin; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic; Mahanimbine
In vitro study on α-amylase inhibitory activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Phyllanthus amarus
Tamil Iniyan,Dineshkumar B,Nandhakumar M,Senthilkumar M
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Objective : The objective of this study was to evaluate the a-amylase inhibitory activity of different extracts of Phyllanthus amarus against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Materials and Methods : The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with ethanol, chloroform, and hexane. Each extract was evaporated using rotary evaporator, under reduced pressure. Different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 μg/mL) of each extract were made by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subjected to a-amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate. The absorbance was read at 595 nm using spectrophotometer. Using this method, the percentage of a-amylase inhibitory activity and IC 50 values of each extract was calculated. Results : The chloroform extract failed to inhibit a-amylase activity. However, the ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibited appreciable a-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 36.05 ± 4.01 μg/mL and 48.92 ± 3.43 μg/mL, respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC 50 value 83.33 ± 0.34 μg/mL). Conclusion : This study supports the ayurvedic concept that ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibit considerable a-amylase inhibitory activities. Further, this study supports its usage in ethnomedicines for management of diabetes.
Single dose vaccine delivery system of tetanus toxoid formulation based on chitosan microspheres
Dineshkumar B,Dhanaraj S A,Santhi K,Vijayan P
International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.5138/148
Abstract: Biodegradable polymers such as Chitosan or PLGA has been used for sustain release of vaccines for prolonged period. To develop single dose vaccine delivery system of tetanus toxoid using chitosan microspheres. Different batches, 1%, 2% and 3% of chitosan microspheres (CM) were prepared by emulsion cross-linking method using glutaradehyde saturated toluene (GST). The tetanus toxoid (TT) was loaded with 1%, 2% and 3% of CM by adsorption method. Percentage of TT absorbed in 1%, 2% and 3% CM were determined by Limes flocculation method. In vitro release of adsorbed TT from 1%, 2% and 3% CM were performed with PBS (pH 7.4) and evaluated by ELISA assay using purified guinea pig IgG by affinity chromatography.Results: The average particle size of 1%, 2% and 3% of CM were determined by optical microscopic method and particle size was found to be 30μm, 31μm, and 35μm respectively. Percentage of TT adsorbed in 1%, 2% and 3% CM were found to be 71%, 80% and 76% respectively by Limes flocculation method. In vitro studies showed that different batches (1%, 2% and 3%) of CM showed cumulative percentage release of TT 74.09%, 89.31%, and 80.23% respectively for 50 days. Among three batches of microspheres, 2% of chitosan microspheres showed better consistent and sustained release of TT for 50 days.Conclusions: This study suggested that 2% of chitosan microspheres could be useful for sustained release of tetanus toxoid to maintain the antibody titre for prolonged period. Keywords: Tetanus toxoid, Chitosan microspheres, Single shot vaccine.
Improvement Of Aodv Routing Protocol Based On Wireless Networks
Baria Vanrajkumar Dineshkumar
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: For wireless networks has no support infrastructure and shows a highly dynamic feature, routing becomes a key problem to be solved. Data packets are transmitted on a path that had least hops in AODV protocol. It couldn't consider the path stability. When the node of wireless networks moved quickly and the path had short lifetime, the path recovery and routing again is caused. It is a lot of network resource. For network performance, AODV_V that improvement of AODV protocol in the paper. Opnet-11.5 simulation results show that AODV_V routing protocol can improve the delivery rate of data packets, reduce the average end to end delay and packet-loss-rate.
Impact of E-Banking on Traditional Banking Services
Shilpan Dineshkumar Vyas
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Internet banking is changing the banking industry, having the major effects on banking relationships. Banking is now no longer confined to the branches were one has to approach the branch in person, to withdraw cash or deposit a cheque or request a statement of accounts. In true Internet banking, any inquiry or transaction is processed online without any reference to the branch (anywhere banking) at any time. Providing Internet banking is increasingly becoming a "need to have" than a "nice to have" service. The net banking, thus, now is more of a norm rather than an exception in many developed countries due to the fact that it is the cheapest way of providing banking services. This research paper will introduce you to e-banking, giving the meaning, functions, types, advantages and limitations of e-banking. It will also show the impact of e-banking on traditional services and finally the result documentation.
Impact Of Product Patent Regime On Children's Health – A Critique
Dineshkumar D Patil,Vikram G Allipur
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: The integration of domestic economies into global markets can affect both the proximate and the underlying determinants of child health. As the World Trade Organization (WTO) extends its reach into areas formerly outside the range of international trade agreements, globalization poses new risks and challenges to communities which have not been exposed to such external factors before. Much of this health crisis reflects the underlying economic reality of globalization. The greatest gains from trade liberalization have accrued to the wealthiest nations, and to the most powerful economic actors within each country. While some people within developing countries have also benefited, trade liberalization has threatened the livelihoods of the world's most vulnerable communities by exposing them to global market forces. The resulting impoverishment of poor families across the developing world has in many instances led to increased health problems among children due to stricter norms of IPR protection and has raised the cost of medication.
Testing Various Similarity Metrics and their Permutations with Clustering Approach in Context Free Data Cleaning
Sohil Dineshkumar Pandya,Paresh V Virparia
International Journal of Computer Science and Security , 2009,
Abstract: Organizations can sustain growth in this knowledge era by proficient data analysis, which heavily relies on quality of data. This paper emphasizes on usage of sequence similarity metric with clustering approach in context free data cleaning to improve the quality of data by reducing noise. Authors propose an algorithm to test suitability of value to correct other values of attribute based on distance between them. The sequence similarity metrics like Needlemen-Wunch, Jaro-Winkler, Chapman Ordered Name Similarity and Smith-Waterman are used to find distance of two values. Experimental results show that how the approach can effectively clean the data without reference data.
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