Abstract:
We show that the maximization of the sum degrees-of-freedom for the static flat-fading multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) interference channel is equivalent to a rank constrained rank minimization problem (RCRM), when the signal spaces span all available dimensions. The rank minimization corresponds to maximizing interference alignment (IA) so that interference spans the lowest dimensional subspace possible. The rank constraints account for the useful signal spaces spanning all available spatial dimensions. That way, we reformulate all IA requirements to requirements involving ranks. Then, we present a convex relaxation of the RCRM problem inspired by recent results in compressed sensing and low-rank matrix completion theory that rely on approximating rank with the nuclear norm. We show that the convex envelope of the sum of ranks of the interference matrices is the normalized sum of their corresponding nuclear norms and introduce tractable constraints that are asymptotically equivalent to the rank constraints for the initial problem. We also show that our heuristic relaxation can be tuned for the multi-cell interference channel. Furthermore, we experimentally show that in many cases the proposed algorithm attains perfect interference alignment and in some cases outperforms previous approaches for finding precoding and zero-forcing matrices for interference alignment.

Abstract:
We consider {\it i)} the overhead minimization of maximum-distance separable (MDS) storage codes for the repair of a single failed node and {\it ii)} the total secure degrees-of-freedom (S-DoF) maximization in a multiple-access compound wiretap channel. We show that the two problems are connected. Specifically, the overhead minimization for a single node failure of an {\it optimal} MDS code, i.e. one that can achieve the information theoretic overhead minimum, is equivalent to maximizing the S-DoF in a multiple-access compound wiretap channel. Additionally, we show that maximizing the S-DoF in a multiple-access compound wiretap channel is equivalent to minimizing the overhead of an MDS code for the repair of a departed node. An optimal MDS code maps to a full S-DoF channel and a full S-DoF channel maps to an MDS code with minimum repair overhead for one failed node. We also state a general framework for code-to-channel and channel-to-code mappings and performance bounds between the two settings. The underlying theme for all connections presented is interference alignment (IA). The connections between the two problems become apparent when we restate IA as an optimization problem. Specifically, we formulate the overhead minimization and the S-DoF maximization as rank constrained, sum-rank and max-rank minimization problems respectively. The derived connections allow us to map repair strategies of recently discovered repair codes to beamforming matrices and characterize the maximum S-DoF for the single antenna multiple-access compound wiretap channel.

Abstract:
In distributed storage systems that employ erasure coding, the issue of minimizing the total {\it repair bandwidth} required to exactly regenerate a storage node after a failure arises. This repair bandwidth depends on the structure of the storage code and the repair strategies used to restore the lost data. Minimizing it requires that undesired data during a repair align in the smallest possible spaces, using the concept of interference alignment (IA). Here, a points-on-a-lattice representation of the symbol extension IA of Cadambe {\it et al.} provides cues to perfect IA instances which we combine with fundamental properties of Hadamard matrices to construct a new storage code with favorable repair properties. Specifically, we build an explicit $(k+2,k)$ storage code over $\mathbb{GF}(3)$, whose single systematic node failures can be repaired with bandwidth that matches exactly the theoretical minimum. Moreover, the repair of single parity node failures generates at most the same repair bandwidth as any systematic node failure. Our code can tolerate any single node failure and any pair of failures that involves at most one systematic failure.

Abstract:
Distributed storage systems for large-scale applications typically use replication for reliability. Recently, erasure codes were used to reduce the large storage overhead, while increasing data reliability. A main limitation of off-the-shelf erasure codes is their high-repair cost during single node failure events. A major open problem in this area has been the design of codes that {\it i)} are repair efficient and {\it ii)} achieve arbitrarily high data rates. In this paper, we explore the repair metric of {\it locality}, which corresponds to the number of disk accesses required during a {\color{black}single} node repair. Under this metric we characterize an information theoretic trade-off that binds together locality, code distance, and the storage capacity of each node. We show the existence of optimal {\it locally repairable codes} (LRCs) that achieve this trade-off. The achievability proof uses a locality aware flow-graph gadget which leads to a randomized code construction. Finally, we present an optimal and explicit LRC that achieves arbitrarily high data-rates. Our locality optimal construction is based on simple combinations of Reed-Solomon blocks.

Abstract:
Petabyte-scale distributed storage systems are currently transitioning to erasure codes to achieve higher storage efficiency. Classical codes like Reed-Solomon are highly sub-optimal for distributed environments due to their high overhead in single-failure events. Locally Repairable Codes (LRCs) form a new family of codes that are repair efficient. In particular, LRCs minimize the number of nodes participating in single node repairs during which they generate small network traffic. Two large-scale distributed storage systems have already implemented different types of LRCs: Windows Azure Storage and the Hadoop Distributed File System RAID used by Facebook. The fundamental bounds for LRCs, namely the best possible distance for a given code locality, were recently discovered, but few explicit constructions exist. In this work, we present an explicit and optimal LRCs that are simple to construct. Our construction is based on grouping Reed-Solomon (RS) coded symbols to obtain RS coded symbols over a larger finite field. We then partition these RS symbols in small groups, and re-encode them using a simple local code that offers low repair locality. For the analysis of the optimality of the code, we derive a new result on the matroid represented by the code generator matrix.

Abstract:
We consider the problem of identifying the sparse principal component of a rank-deficient matrix. We introduce auxiliary spherical variables and prove that there exists a set of candidate index-sets (that is, sets of indices to the nonzero elements of the vector argument) whose size is polynomially bounded, in terms of rank, and contains the optimal index-set, i.e. the index-set of the nonzero elements of the optimal solution. Finally, we develop an algorithm that computes the optimal sparse principal component in polynomial time for any sparsity degree.

Abstract:
In distributed storage systems that employ erasure coding, the issue of minimizing the total {\it communication} required to exactly rebuild a storage node after a failure arises. This repair bandwidth depends on the structure of the storage code and the repair strategies used to restore the lost data. Designing high-rate maximum-distance separable (MDS) codes that achieve the optimum repair communication has been a well-known open problem. In this work, we use Hadamard matrices to construct the first explicit 2-parity MDS storage code with optimal repair properties for all single node failures, including the parities. Our construction relies on a novel method of achieving perfect interference alignment over finite fields with a finite file size, or number of extensions. We generalize this construction to design $m$-parity MDS codes that achieve the optimum repair communication for single systematic node failures and show that there is an interesting connection between our $m$-parity codes and the systematic-repair optimal permutation-matrix based codes of Tamo {\it et al.} \cite{Tamo} and Cadambe {\it et al.} \cite{PermCodes_ISIT, PermCodes}.

Abstract:
We introduce a novel algorithm that computes the $k$-sparse principal component of a positive semidefinite matrix $A$. Our algorithm is combinatorial and operates by examining a discrete set of special vectors lying in a low-dimensional eigen-subspace of $A$. We obtain provable approximation guarantees that depend on the spectral decay profile of the matrix: the faster the eigenvalue decay, the better the quality of our approximation. For example, if the eigenvalues of $A$ follow a power-law decay, we obtain a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for any desired accuracy. A key algorithmic component of our scheme is a combinatorial feature elimination step that is provably safe and in practice significantly reduces the running complexity of our algorithm. We implement our algorithm and test it on multiple artificial and real data sets. Due to the feature elimination step, it is possible to perform sparse PCA on data sets consisting of millions of entries in a few minutes. Our experimental evaluation shows that our scheme is nearly optimal while finding very sparse vectors. We compare to the prior state of the art and show that our scheme matches or outperforms previous algorithms in all tested data sets.

Abstract:
Several works have developed vector-linear maximum-distance separable (MDS) storage codes that min- imize the total communication cost required to repair a single coded symbol after an erasure, referred to as repair bandwidth (BW). Vector codes allow communicating fewer sub-symbols per node, instead of the entire content. This allows non trivial savings in repair BW. In sharp contrast, classic codes, like Reed- Solomon (RS), used in current storage systems, are deemed to suffer from naive repair, i.e. downloading the entire stored message to repair one failed node. This mainly happens because they are scalar-linear. In this work, we present a simple framework that treats scalar codes as vector-linear. In some cases, this allows significant savings in repair BW. We show that vectorized scalar codes exhibit properties that simplify the design of repair schemes. Our framework can be seen as a finite field analogue of real interference alignment. Using our simplified framework, we design a scheme that we call clique-repair which provably identifies the best linear repair strategy for any scalar 2-parity MDS code, under some conditions on the sub-field chosen for vectorization. We specify optimal repair schemes for specific (5,3)- and (6,4)-Reed- Solomon (RS) codes. Further, we present a repair strategy for the RS code currently deployed in the Facebook Analytics Hadoop cluster that leads to 20% of repair BW savings over naive repair which is the repair scheme currently used for this code.

Abstract:
The computation of the sparse principal component of a matrix is equivalent to the identification of its principal submatrix with the largest maximum eigenvalue. Finding this optimal submatrix is what renders the problem ${\mathcal{NP}}$-hard. In this work, we prove that, if the matrix is positive semidefinite and its rank is constant, then its sparse principal component is polynomially computable. Our proof utilizes the auxiliary unit vector technique that has been recently developed to identify problems that are polynomially solvable. Moreover, we use this technique to design an algorithm which, for any sparsity value, computes the sparse principal component with complexity ${\mathcal O}\left(N^{D+1}\right)$, where $N$ and $D$ are the matrix size and rank, respectively. Our algorithm is fully parallelizable and memory efficient.