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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9856 matches for " Dimiter and Anne Rasmussen Toshkov "
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Time to Decide: The effect of early agreements on legislative duration in the EU
Dimiter and Anne Rasmussen Toshkov
European Integration Online Papers , 2012,
Abstract: The increased use of early agreements in the EU co-decision procedure raises the concern that intra and inter-institutional political debate is sacrificed for the sake of efficiency. We investigate the effect of early agreements (trilogues) on the time it takes for legislation to be negotiated during the first reading of co-decision. We find that the first reading negotiations of trilogues on salient legislation take longer than first readings of similar files reconciled at second and third reading. First readings of early agreements also appear to last longer when considering all co-decision files submitted to the 5th and 6th European Parliaments, but the effect is masked by a general increase in first reading duration after 2004. We conclude that even if early agreements restrict access of certain actors to decision making, they allow for more time for substantive debate at the first reading stage than similar files reconciled later in the legislative process.
Post-accession compliance between administrative co-ordination and political bargaining
Dimiter Toshkov
European Integration Online Papers , 2009,
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between administrative co-ordination of EU affairs at the national level and compliance with EU law. First, we develop two hypotheses about the impact of co-ordination. We expect that the strength of the co-ordination structure (level of centralisation and political support) will improve levels of transposition of EU law. Administrative co-ordination becomes irrelevant, however, for the transposition of EU laws that attain political salience and trigger political opposition. We test these conjectures by an aggregate country-level analysis of transposition rates and a qualitative comparative analysis of eight cases covering two directives. Both analyses support our expectations that strong administrative co-ordination of EU affairs leads to smaller transposition deficits in the aggregate. However, for highly salient directives that touch upon constitutional issues and trigger opposition from political actors outside the executive, administrative co-ordination cannot help.
The Role of the European Commission in Co-decision A strategic facilitator operating in a situation of structural disadvantage
Anne Rasmussen
European Integration Online Papers , 2003,
Abstract: The co-decision procedure has had significant implications for the interaction between the EU institutions and has attracted the attention of a series of formal, rational choice institutionalists. However, these have mostly dealt with the Commission in a relatively superficial way and their conclusions about its legislative role have been rather pessimistic. Instead this study examines the role of the Commission in more detail by looking closer at both the formal and informal ways in which the Commission has affected legislation in co-decision from Maastricht to one year after the entering into force of the Amsterdam Treaty. The study includes interview and quantitative data at a general level as well as from three Socrates procedures completed in 1995, 1998, and 2000. In line with the formal, rational choice theorists, the paper notes that the Commissions room for manoeuvre is significantly reduced in co-decision, but it argues that its relative loss of power with the introduction of the procedure should not blur the picture that in absolute terms it is still an important actor in the day-to-day decision-making of the EU.
The Role of the European Commission in Co-decision A strategic facilitator operating in a situation of structural disadvantage
Anne Rasmussen
European Integration Online Papers , 2003,
Abstract: The co-decision procedure has had significant implications for the interaction between the EU institutions and has attracted the attention of a series of formal, rational choice institutionalists. However, these have mostly dealt with the Commission in a relatively superficial way and their conclusions about its legislative role have been rather pessimistic. Instead this study examines the role of the Commission in more detail by looking closer at both the formal and informal ways in which the Commission has affected legislation in co-decision from Maastricht to one year after the entering into force of the Amsterdam Treaty. The study includes interview and quantitative data at a general level as well as from three Socrates procedures completed in 1995, 1998, and 2000. In line with the formal, rational choice theorists, the paper notes that the Commission s room for manoeuvre is significantly reduced in co-decision, but it argues that its relative loss of power with the introduction of the procedure should not blur the picture that in absolute terms it is still an important actor in the day-to-day decision-making of the EU.
The Effect of Mitochondrial Dysfunction on Cytosolic Nucleotide Metabolism
Claus Desler,Anne Lykke,Lene Juel Rasmussen
Journal of Nucleic Acids , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/701518
Abstract: Several enzymes of the metabolic pathways responsible for metabolism of cytosolic ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides are located in mitochondria. Studies described in this paper suggest dysfunction of the mitochondria to affect these metabolic pathways and limit the available levels of cytosolic ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides, which in turn can result in aberrant RNA and DNA synthesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to genomic instability, and it is possible that the limiting effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on the levels of nucleotides and resulting aberrant RNA and DNA synthesis in part can be responsible for this link. This paper summarizes the parts of the metabolic pathways responsible for nucleotide metabolism that can be affected by mitochondrial dysfunction. 1. Introduction Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles present in almost all eukaryotic cells in quantities ranging from a single copy to several thousand per cell. Important mitochondrial functions include ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation, -oxidation of fatty acids, and metabolism of amino acids and lipids. Furthermore, mitochondria have a prominent role in apoptosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to genomic instability, and mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been shown in a wide array of tumors [1, 2]. The focus of this paper is on the consequences of mitochondrial function for metabolism of cytosolic ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides. Several of the rate-limiting steps of these metabolic pathways take place in the mitochondria and can be affected by the fitness of the organelle. Disturbance of mitochondrial function therefore has the potential to affect the cytosolic levels of ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides, which in turn can affect the genomic stability. Where deoxyribonucleotides are exclusively destined for DNA synthesis in the form of deoxyribonucleotides triphosphates (dNTP), ribonucleotides have a multitude of uses in RNA synthesis in the form of ribonucleotide triphosphates (rNTP), as chemical energy transporters in the form of adenine- -triphosphate (ATP) and to form the basis of second messenger molecules. Disruption of the intracellular levels of deoxyribonucleotides or ribonucleotides is unfavorable for the cell. Imbalance of the dNTP pools can induce a variety of genetic changes such as base substitutions, frameshift mutations, delay of replication fork progression and DNA replication, as well as increase the frequency of fragile sites [3–9]. Decreased levels of rNTP pools inhibits RNA
Births in two different delivery units in the same clinic – A prospective study of healthy primiparous women
Britt Eide, Anne Nilsen, Svein Rasmussen
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-9-25
Abstract: Eligible participants were low-risk primiparas who met the criteria for delivery in the midwife-led ward regardless of which cohort they were allocated to. The two wards are localised at the same floor. Women in both cohorts received the same standardized public antenatal care by general medical practitioners and midwifes who were not involved in the delivery. After admission of a woman to the midwife-led ward, the next woman who met the inclusion criteria, but preferred delivery at the conventional delivery ward, was allocated to the conventional delivery ward cohort. Among the 252 women in the midwife-led ward cohort, 74 (29%) women were transferred to the conventional delivery ward during labour.Emergency caesarean and instrumental delivery rates in women who were admitted to the midwife-led and conventional birth wards were statistically non-different, but more women admitted to the conventional birth ward had episiotomy. More women in the conventional delivery ward received epidural analgesia, pudental nerve block and nitrous oxide, while more women in the midwife-led ward received opiates and non-pharmacological pain relief.We did not find evidence that starting delivery in the midwife-led setting offers the advantage of lower operative delivery rates. However, epidural analgesia, pudental nerve block and episiotomies were less often while non-pharmacological pain relief was often used in the midwife-led ward.In many places world-wide all births are concentrated to larger maternity clinics, regardless of whether the woman is seen as a healthy, low-risk woman, or whether there are underlying illness or other risk factors existent. During recent decades, particularly in parts of the world with thriving private practice, obstetricians have increasingly taken over responsibility for normal birth [1,2]. Concomitantly, routine use of intervention such as episiotomy, electronic foetal monitoring and pain control by systemic agents, that are not evidence based [3] and
Clinical and biochemical outcomes of cinacalcet treatment of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a case series
Anne Rasmussen, Niklas J?rgensen, Peter Schwarz
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-564
Abstract: Four female patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia with inactivating mutations in the CaSR gene were included in the treatment study. Three patients were related: two were siblings and one was the daughter of one of these. The ages of the related patients were 51 years, 57 years and 35 years. All three patients were carriers of the same mutation. The fourth patient, unrelated to the others, was 53 years old, and a carrier of a novel and previously unknown mutation leading to familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. All four patients were Caucasians of Danish nationality. Biochemically, all patients had elevated blood ionized calcium, serum parathyroid hormone, serum magnesium and total serum calcium, except one, whose serum parathyroid hormone was within the normal range prior to treatment. All patients were treated with cinacalcet in a dosage of 30 mg to 60 mg per day.Three months after the initiation of cinacalcet treatment, all our patients experiencing clinical signs of hypercalcemia had improved in self -reported well-being and in biochemical parameters. None of our patients suffered adverse events to cinacalcet treatment. Biochemical markers of calcium homeostasis were improved and remained stable during the observation period of 12 months (two patients), 24 and 36 months, in both the symptomatic and the asymptomatic patients.Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a rare, benign syndrome affecting the regulation of calcium metabolism. FHH is an autosomal-dominant genetic disease with high penetrance, caused by an inactivating mutation in the gene encoding the calcium sensing receptor, CaSR. The loss-of-function leads to decreased sensitivity of the CaSR to ionized calcium (Ca++), shifting the set-point for Ca++-regulated parathyroid hormone (PTH) release to the right [1]. This set-point shift is followed by an increased circulating level of PTH and subsequent hypercalcemia. However, blood (B)-Ca++ is usually only moderately elevated in FHH pati
Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark
Lone Banke Rasmussen,Anne Dahl Lassen,Kirsten Hansen,Pia Knuthsen
Food & Nutrition Research , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v54i0.2100
Abstract: Background: A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.
Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "NO"
Dimiter Philipov
Demographic Research , 2011,
Abstract: This paper takes the "no" side in the debate on the question posed in the title. The paper assumes that the dual-earner/dual-carer household model is the most likely aim of policies that push aggressively for gender equality in order to raise fertility. Five objections are discussed: the model does not necessarily lead to a fertility increase; aggressiveness will lead to an imbalance of labor supply and demand, and is likely to confront slowly changing cultural norms; similar policies will also confront the issue of innate gender differences; and country idiosyncrasies prevent the application of a unified policy approach. The paper briefly concludes that compatible gender-neutral family policies and fertility-neutral gender policies are likely to lead to an increase in fertility.
Information & Communication Technologies Impact on Academic Curricula
Dimiter Bogdanov
Educational Technology & Society , 1999,
Abstract:
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