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The REE signature of banded iron formations (BIF) and martite-goethite mineralization of the Njweng ridge (South Cameroon) are used here to decipher the nature of the ocean during the period of BIF precipitation. The textures of typical BIF categories are also presented as the only sedimentary feature. Two types of BIF facies are present at Njweng: the oxide and silicate facies. These facies show two stages of phase transformations. The first is the transformation of the original magnetite mineral into martite by oxidation resulting in trellis texture; the second is a simultaneous transformation by hydration into goethite and dehydration into martite. The samples typically show LREE depleted patterns relative to HREE, a characteristic similar to that of modern seawater. Also the strong positive Eu anomalies from the samples indicate the involvement of hydrothermal plumes of volcanic origin such as at mid ocean ridges (MOR). Yttrium (Y) has a strong positive anomaly pointing to the transportation of REEs as aqueous complexes within these ancient seas. The BIF samples have no positive Ce anomalies, suggesting that the oceans at that time were more reducing with no Ce fractionation than in present day oceans. The martite-goethite mineralization rather shows a positive Ce anomaly that derived from the enrichment in REE during the weathering of REE-bearing minerals. These results are integrated into existing literature on REE in BIFs worldwide and provide new insights into these heretofore unstudied BIFs of the northern edge of the Congo Craton.