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Spinal Cord Lesion: Effects of and Perspectives for Treatment
V. Dietz
Neural Plasticity , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/np.2001.83
Abstract: Following central motor lesions, two forms of adaptation can be observed which lead to improved mobility: (1) the development of spastic muscle tone, and (2) the activation of spinal locomotor centers induced by specific treadmill training. Tension development during spastic gait is different from that during normal gait and appears to be independent of exaggerated monosynaptic stretch reflexes. Exaggerated stretch reflexes are associated with an absence or reduction of functionally essential polysynaptic reflexes. When supraspinal control of spinal reflexes is impaired, the inhibition of monosynaptic reflexes is missing in addition to a reduced facilitation of polysynaptic reflexes. Therefore, overall leg muscle activity becomes reduced and less well modulated in patients with spasticity. Electrophysiologicai and histological studies have shown that a transformation of motor units takes place following central motor lesions with the consequence that regulation of muscle tone is achieved at a lower level of neuronal organization which in turn enables the patient to walk. Based on observations of the locomotor capacity of the spinal cat, recent studies have indicated that spinal locomotor centers can be activated and trained in patients with complete or incomplete paraplegia when the body is partially unloaded. However, the level of electromyographic activity in the gastrocnemius (the main antigravity muscle during gait) is considerably lower in the patients compared to healthy subjects. During the course of a daily locomotor training program, the amplitude of gastrocnemius, electromyographic activity increases significantly during the stance phase, while inappropriate tibialis anterior activation decreases. Patients with incomplete paraplegia benefit from such training programs such that their walking ability on a stationary surface improves. The pathophysiology and functional significance of spastic muscle tone and the effects of treadmill training on the locomotor pattern underlying new attempts to improve the mobility of patients with paraplegia are reviewed.
Hacia una etnografía doblemente reflexiva: Una propuesta desde la antropología de la interculturalidad.
Gunther Dietz
AIBR : Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana , 2011,
Abstract: Starting from the contemporary debate on ethnographic methodology in anthropology,this paper analyses how new methodological options arise throughout processes of educationalinterculturality and how these can nourish, rejuvenate and decolonize classicalanthropological ethnography. The contrast between a postmodern anthropology and activistethnography reveals possibilities for fruitfully complement social and political engagementwith the classical canon of ethnography, which is here illustrated for the sphereof Intercultural Studies and the emerging field of what may be called an anthropology ofinterculturality. The resulting, “doubly reflexive ethnography” completes the contrast ofemic and etic approaches through a emic-etic dialectical, structure-oriented perspective,which is particularly suitable for studying institutions and organizations whose actorsco-reflect on the same research process as the anthropologist her/himself. This proposalis finally summed up in a three-dimensional heuristic research model, which combinessemantic, pragmatic and syntactic dimensions of ethnography and which is particularlysuited for “inter-cultural”, “inter-lingual” and “inter-actor” diversity contexts.
Mujeres musulmanas en Granada: discursos sobre comunidad, exclusión de género y discriminación etnorreligiosa
Gunther Dietz
Migraciones internacionales , 2004,
Abstract: En los últimos veinte a os Espa a ha experimentado un marcado incremento de inmigrantes, entre los que destacan los magrebíes musulmanes. Asimismo, desde finales del franquismo en ciudades como Granada se ha observado una tendencia de conversión al Islam entre la población autóctona. Ambos fenómenos vienen acompa ados por actitudes islamofóbicas que afectan particularmente a las mujeres musulmanas. Este estudio etnográfico explora la vida cotidiana de estas mujeres en el contexto de una sociedad que se encuentra en proceso de secularización pero que sigue siendo católica. A través de los discursos de las mujeres musulmanas y de sus experiencias interreligiosas e interculturales se analizan las formas de discriminación, así como las pautas de exclusión social, tanto en la sociedad no musulmana dominante como en las comunidades musulmanas. Por último, estas experiencias discriminatorias son contrastadas con las actividades desarrolladas por las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las instituciones públicas de Espa a.
A Nonlinear Model of Economic Data Related to the German Automobile Industry
S. Dietz
International Journal of Applied Operational Research , 2012,
Abstract: Prediction of economic variables is a basic component not only for economic models, but also for many business decisions. But it is difficult to produce accurate predictions in times of economic crises, which cause nonlinear effects in the data. Such evidence appeared in the German automobile industry as a consequence of the financial crisis in 2008/09, which influenced exchange rates and automobile manufacturers’ share prices. In this essay a new method of time series analysis, Autoregressive Neural Network Vector Error Correction Models (ARNN-VECM), based on the concept of nonlinear cointegration of Escribano and Mira [1] and the universal approximation property of single hidden layer feedforward neural networks of Hornik [2] is used for prediction and analysis of the relationships between 4 variables related to the German automobile industry: The US Dollar to Euro exchange rate, the industrial production of the German automobile industry, the sales of imported cars in the USA and an index of shares of German automobile manufacturing companies. The model differentiates between two kinds of relationships: The long run linear relationship (the cointegration relationship) is estimated with a 2SLS method, whereas the stock index is used as instrumental variable. This is due to the fact that share prices are an incentive for management to optimize its operating business. The short run adjustment is the nonlinear part of the model, in which the long run relationship is adjusted at nonlinear temporal occurrence. This part of the model improves the prediction power of the ARNN-VECM significantly, as it is able to handle the crisis of 2008/09. Monthly data from January 1999 to September 2009 are used for estimation of the models. They are estimated using several testing and inference methods for optimal model design as well as a customized Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for optimization of the parameters. Prediction results are compared to various linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate models, which are all outperformed by the ARNN VECM concerning short run prediction. Keywords Nonlinear Time Series Analysis, Vector Error Correction, Neural Networks, Financial Crisis, German Automobile Industry.
Van de redactie
Feike Dietz
De Zeventiende Eeuw : Cultuur in de Nederlanden in Interdisciplinair Perspectief , 2012,
Abstract:
Etnicidad y cultura en movimiento: desafíos teóricos para el estudio de los movimientos étnicos
Gunther Dietz
Nueva antropología , 1999,
Abstract:
La educación religiosa en Espa a: Contribución al diálogo intercultural o factor de conflicto entre religiones?
Gunther Dietz
Estudios sobre las Culturas Contemporaneas , 2008,
Abstract: La educación religiosa actual en Espa a constituye una herencia del a ejo "nacionalcatolicismo"; este tipo de educación confesional se ve desafi ada por la diversidad religiosa y por la aparición de nuevas comunidades etno-religiosas. Aquí se analiza su impacto en las relaciones entre Estado e Iglesia, la situación actual con respecto a las comunidades e instituciones religiosas, sobre todo católicas y musulmanas, su marco jurídico y sus interrelaciones a partir de la transición a la democracia. Se ilustran las transformaciones profundas que se producen en la sociedad espa ola contemporánea por el cambio generacional y la inmigración, así como por la pluralización y diversifi cación de la sociedad civil. Se detalla la situación actual de la educación religiosa confesional en las escuelas espa olas, su grado de apertura hacia el diálogo interreligioso y sus principales obstáculos. Por último, se evalúan las perspectivas que ofrece la educación religiosa como factor de entendimiento intercultural o de contribución a la islamofobia imperante en Espa a hoy.
Take away entre fronteiras: Comida e sentimento de pertencimento entre migrantes italianos na Irlanda do Norte
Angelika Dietz
Espa?o Plural , 2009,
Abstract: Food and migration are twofold connected asfoods are migrating and accompanying migrants. Bothphenomenons occur also in Italian migration, in whichfood played an important role. The following textanalyses the role of food in creating a sense of belongingfor Italian migrants in Northern Ireland.
Discrimina o e Anti-Discrimina o na Espanha: O caso das mulheres mu ulmanas
Gunther Dietz
Campos - Revista de Antropologia Social , 2005,
Abstract: Nos últimos quinze anos, a Espanha tem experimentado um forte incremento da popula o imigrante, na qual se destaca um importante percentual de mu ulmanos magrebinos. Paralelamente, desde os finais do franquismo, tem-se observado em cidades andaluzas como Granada e Córdoba uma tendência de convers o ao Isl por parte da popula o autóctone. Ambos os fen menos se fazem acompanhar por atitudes anti-mu ulmanas e anti-mouras, que refletem diferentes dimens es de discrimina o disseminadas em amplos setores da opini o pública espanhola e que se articulam sobretudo em estereótipos e atitudes historicamente arraigados esgrimidos frente às mulheres mu ulmanas, tanto imigrantes quanto convertidas. Neste artigo, tomamos o estudo de caso da discrimina o contra as mulheres mu ulmas para, em primeiro lugar, contextualizar o incipiente debate sobre discrimina o e anti-discrimina o dentro de dois marcos conceptuais específicos: o multiculturalismo e as políticas de identidade, de um lado; e as políticas públicas da diferen a, de outro. Em segundo lugar analisamos o caso etnográfico mencionado, para finalmente esbo ar o surgimento das atuais políticas estatais anti-discrimina o na Espanha e em nível europeu.
Chance Estimations for Detecting Gravitational Waves with LIGO/Virgo Associated with Gamma Ray Bursts
Alexander Dietz
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRB) are believed to originate from the merger of two compact objects. If this scenario is correct, SGRB will be accompanied by the emission of strong gravitational waves, detectable by current or planned GW detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo. No detection of a gravitational wave has been made up to date. In this paper I will use a set of SGRB with observed redshifts to fit a model describing the cumulative number of SGRB as a function of redshift, to determine the rate of such merger events in the nearby universe. These estimations will be used to make probability statements about detecting a gravitational wave associated with a short gamma ray burst during the latest science run of LIGO/Virgo. Chance estimations for the enhanced and advanced detectors will also be made, and a comparison between the rates deduced from this work will be compared to the existing literature.
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