Abstract:
Finding the factors of an integer can be achieved by various experimental techniques, based on an algorithm developed by Schleich et al., which uses specific properties of Gau\ss{}sums. Experimental limitations usually require truncation of these series, but if the truncation parameter is too small, it is no longer possible to distinguish between factors and so-called "ghost" factors. Here, we discuss two techniques for distinguishing between true factors and ghost factors while keeping the number of terms in the sum constant or only slowly increasing. We experimentally test these modified algorithms in a nuclear spin system, using NMR.

Abstract:
The Quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is a key ingredient in most quantum algorithms. We have compared various spin-based quantum computing schemes to implement the QFT from the point of view of their actual time-costs and the accuracy of the implementation. We focus here on an interesting decomposition of the QFT as a product of the non-selective Hadamard transformation followed by multiqubit gates corresponding to square- and higher-roots of controlled-NOT gates. This decomposition requires only O(n) operations and is thus linear in the number of qubits $n$. The schemes were implemented on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor and the resultant density matrices reconstructed using standard quantum state tomography techniques. Their experimental fidelities have been measured and compared.

Abstract:
The loss of coherence in quantum mechanical superposition states limits the time for which quantum information remains useful. Similarly, it limits the distance over which quantum information can be transmitted, resembling Anderson localization, where disorder causes quantum mechanical states to become localized. Here, we investigate in a nuclear spin-based quantum simulator, the localization of the size of spin clusters that are generated by a Hamiltonian driving the transmission of information, while a variable-strength perturbation counteracts the spreading. We find that the system reaches a dynamic equilibrium size, which decreases with the square of the perturbation strength.

Abstract:
Decoherence is one of the most important obstacles that must be overcome in quantum information processing. It depends on the qubit-environment coupling strength, but also on the spectral composition of the noise generated by the environment. If the spectral density is known, fighting the effect of decoherence can be made more effective. Applying sequences of inversion pulses to the qubit system, we generate effective filter functions that probe the environmental spectral density. Comparing different pulse sequences, we recover the complete spectral density function and distinguish different contributions to the overall decoherence.

Abstract:
Dipolar coupled homonuclear spins present challenging, yet useful systems for quantum information processing. In such systems, eigenbasis of the system Hamiltonian is the appropriate computational basis and coherent control can be achieved by specially designed strongly modulating pulses. In this letter we describe the first experimental implementation of the quantum algorithm for numerical gradient estimation on the eigenbasis of a four spin system.

Abstract:
The spurious interaction of quantum systems with their environment known as decoherence leads, as a function of time, to a decay of coherence of superposition states. Since the interactions between system and environment are local, they can also cause a loss of spatial coherence: correlations between spatially distant parts of the system are lost and the equilibrium states can become localized. This effect limits the distance over which quantum information can be transmitted, e.g., along a spin chain. We investigate this issue in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator, where it is possible to monitor the spreading of quantum information in a three-dimensional network: states that are initially localized on individual spins (qubits) spread under the influence of a suitable Hamiltonian apparently without limits. If we add a perturbation to this Hamiltonian, the spreading stops and the system reaches a limiting size, which becomes smaller as the strength of the perturbation increases. This limiting size appears to represent a dynamical equilibrium. We present a phenomenological model to describe these results.

Abstract:
Quantum information processing requires overcoming decoherence---the loss of "quantumness" due to the inevitable interaction between the quantum system and its environment. One approach towards a solution is quantum dynamical decoupling---a method employing strong and frequent pulses applied to the qubits. Here we report on the first experimental test of the concatenated dynamical decoupling (CDD) scheme, which invokes recursively constructed pulse sequences. Using nuclear magnetic resonance, we demonstrate a near order of magnitude improvement in the decay time of stored quantum states. In conjunction with recent results on high fidelity quantum gates using CDD, our results suggest that quantum dynamical decoupling should be used as a first layer of defense against decoherence in quantum information processing implementations, and can be a stand-alone solution in the right parameter regime.

Abstract:
Universal quantum information processing requires single-qubit rotations and two-qubit interactions as minimal resources. A possible step beyond this minimal scheme is the use of three-qubit interactions. We consider such three-qubit interactions and show how they can reduce the time required for a quantum state transfer in an XY spin chain. For the experimental implementation, we use liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), where three-qubit interactions can be implemented by sequences of radio-frequency pulses.

Abstract:
Experimental determination of an unknown quantum state usually requires several incompatible measurements. However, it is also possible to determine the full quantum state from a single, repeated measurement. For this purpose, the quantum system whose state is to be determined is first coupled to a second quantum system (the "assistant") in such a way that part of the information in the quantum state is transferred to the assistant. The actual measurement is then performed on the enlarged system including the original system and the assistant. We discuss in detail the requirements of this procedure and experimentally implement it on a simple quantum system consisting of nuclear spins.

Abstract:
Quantum information processing often uses systems with dipolar interactions. We use a nuclear spin-based quantum simulator, to study the spreading of information in such a dipolar-coupled system and how perturbations to the dipolar couplings limit the spreading, leading to localization. In [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 230403 (2010)], we found that the system reaches a dynamic equilibrium size, which decreases with the square of the perturbation strength. Here, we study the impact of a disordered Hamiltonian with dipolar 1/r^3 interactions. We show that the expansion of the coherence length of the cluster size of the spins becomes frozen in the presence of large disorder, reminiscent of Anderson localization of non-interacting waves in a disordered potential.