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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3016 matches for " Diet "
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Nutritional Quality of Olives and Olive oil Produced in the Serra Da Mantiqueira from Brazil  [PDF]
?ngelo Albérico Alvarenga, Joyce Ludimila da Cruz, Adelson Francisco de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando de Oliveira da Silva, Emerson Dias Gon?alves, Paulo Márcio Norberto
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.87039
Abstract: The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest fruits grown by man. Its fruit can be processed into olive oil or treated properly and serve directly for the in natura consumption in the form of olives. Extracted from the olive, the olive oil is highly valued in the market, for its nutritional benefits and also for its unique and delicate flavor. Brazil is the second largest importer of olive oil in the world, but technology is already available and the expansion of the crop has been taking place in the south-southeast regions, where the climate is favorable, in order to serve this market. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical qualities of the olives and characterize, sensorially and chemically, olive oils from different olive cultivars planted in the Region of Serra da Mantiqueira. The olives and olive oils produced from the cultivars Arbequina, Arbosana, Grapolo 541, Koroneiki and Maria da Fé were evaluated at the EPAMIG Experimental Field of Maria da Fé, Minas Gerais, and Brazil. In the first experiment the olives harvested in February of 2015 were analyzed in terms of weight, volume, transverse and longitudinal diameter of the fruit and the lump and the relation of the olive/lump and the chemical (protein, lipid, moisture and ashes). In the second experiment the olives were processed by the grinding, beating and centrifugation method to obtain the oils. The olive oils were analyzed for acidity, peroxide index and absorbance in the ultraviolet region at 274 nm, 270 nm, 266 nm and 232 nm. After this characterization the olive oils produced in the Serra da Mantiqueira were then submitted to sensorial analysis. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. The interpretation of the data from the sensorial analysis was done using the software sensomaker. Differences were observed between olives and olive oils produced by different cultivars in the Serra da Mantiqueira. The cultivar Grappolo 541 produces larger fruits, indicated for the preparation of olives and in natura consumption. Due to the small size of the fruit, the cultivar Maria da Fé is more suitable for olive oil production. The oils of all cultivars are within the parameters established by the Brazilian legislation in force, being classified as Extra Virgin Olive Oil. The oils of all cultivars were well accepted by consumers, especially the cultivars Maria da Fé and Grappolo 541.
Consuming Passions and Patterns of Consumption, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research and Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, 20th September 1997
Louise Martin
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1998, DOI: 10.5334/pia.121
First methodological-experimental contribution to the study of the diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes
Roberto Pilli,Renzo De Battisti
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2000, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-11.2-4154
Abstract: The aims of this study were: to devise an easy method for the evaluation of the differences in the diet between two or more samples of fox scats collected along transects; to elucidate seasonal and local variations in the consumption of mammals. The study area (2000 ha) is located in the Prealps of the province of Belluno (municipality of Ponte nelle Alpi). Before our analysis of the scats, we evaluated the laboratory procedures used by previous Authors (Reynolds and Aebischer, 1991). We suggest a "semi-quantitative" method that allows us to obtain more information than with "qualitative" methods alone.
Diet in dermatology
Hanumanthappa H
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2001,
Effects of a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet on some coronary heart disease risk markers  [PDF]
Gunnar Johansson, B?rje K?llg?rd, Per-Arne ?ckerman
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.21003
Abstract: Background: There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower incidence of coronary heart disease, but there is a debate as to why this is the case. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet would lead to a decrease in risk for coronary heart diseases indicated by surrogate markers. Design: Twenty volunteers participated in the study (4 men and 16 women, mean age 44 years, range 27 - 61) from a town in western Sweden. Clinical examinations were performed, blood samples were drawn and dietary survey, i.e. repeated 24-h recalls were carried out before (0 months) and 3, 6 and 12 months after the change from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet. A dietician educated the volunteers with regard to the vegetarian dietary regimen, organized and taught the vegetarian cooking courses. Results: The dietary shift lead to an increase in the intake of total carbohydrates and fibre and a decrease in fat, protein and sucrose. The coronary heart disease risk markers body weight, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low-density lipoptrotein cholesterol decreased significantly. Conclusions: There was a decrease in disease risk markers even though the ratio polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids was unchanged. The main finding in this study is that there was a weight loss, sustained for one year, without any recommendation to decrease the energy intake or any focus on weight reduction.
Captures and Diet of Three Sharks Species in the Veracruz Reef System  [PDF]
José Otilio Avenda?o-Alvarez, Horacio Pérez-Espa?a, David Salas-Monreal, Emiliano García-Rodríguez
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.32008

During July to November of 2008, the artisanal fisheries captured juvenile sharks belonging to the Carcharhinus and Sphyrnidae family in the Veracruz Reef System (south western Gulf of Mexico). The three most abundant organisms were of the species Sphyrna lewini, Carcharhinus brevipinna and Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. Local fisherman recognized five captured areas of sharks as a direct way or bycatch. Some of these areas are located near to eddies formations and river discharges (high productivity areas). These top predators fed on benthic and demersal prey of coastal and reef habits had been the Teleost group the most important item in its diet. However it is possible to observe differences in its feeding tendency.

The importance of diet in osteoporosis  [PDF]
Nicolás Mendoza, Jesús Presa, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Fidel Hita
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.32012

The knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of osteoporosis (OP) is vital in the prevention strategy of this disease and its physical and economic consequences. The epidemiological characteristics of our population of postmenopausal women exhibit a pattern similar to that described in other studies, showing a proportional relationship between the magnitude of the risk factor and the severity of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Moreover, we observed protective effects for several dietary factors, such as the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals; the moderate consumption of fish, alcohol, and dairy products; and the low intake of red meat, on spinal bone mineral density (BMD). Only the intake of grains and vegetables exerted protective effects on hip BMD.

Coeliac Disease: Gluten Free Diet and… What Else?  [PDF]
Marina Taus, Elsa Veronica Mignini, Daniele Fumelli, Debora Busni, Giulia Nicolai, Carla Carletti, Albano Nicolai
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2016.611035
Abstract: Coeliac Disease (CD) is a permanent gluten intolerance, whose pathogenesis involves multiple factors including genetics and environment. CD has different representations and non-specific symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating, pain, flatulence and constipation may sometimes be misleading. Once diagnosed of CD, patients must adhere to Gluten Free Diet, which consists in the lifelong avoidance of gluten containing foods and of those naturally gluten free but at risk of contamination. This dietary approach is considered the only therapy in order to avoid symptoms exacerbation and to reduce the digestive mucosa inflammation, which has been related to higher risks of lymphoproliferative malignancy and other immunological disorders. However, being on a Gluten Free Diet is not as resolving as it may seem since it has several criticalities. First of all, excluding gluten means limiting food variety so that coeliac patients may have unbalanced intake of several nutrients and develop clinical or subclinical deficiencies. This can be due to scarce attention to qualitative and quantitative composition of diets and poor information about gluten-containing foods, which only patient-tailored dietetic protocol and long-term follow-up can achieve. Secondly, Gluten Free Diet may not result in complete remission of mucosal damage or in resolution of symptoms. Unintentional contamination of gluten or poor adherence to diet are the main culprits of the incomplete mucosal healing but other triggers may be involved. Recent research has focused on the role of FODMAPs in changing gut microbiota and on the improvement of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) symptoms after their dietary avoidance or reduction. Since CD and IBS may share many clinical presentations, further studies are needed to evaluate if a subgroup of CD patients whose symptoms are not improved by Gluten Free Diet could benefit from a new therapeutic approach consisting in both gluten/wheat and FODMAPs avoidance.
Age-Related Biomarkers Can be Modulated by Diet in the Rat  [PDF]
Hilary Anne MacQueen, Wassif Samuel Wassif, Ian Walker, Dawn Angela Sadler, Karen Evans
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.28120
Abstract: This study seeks to establish the normal serum concentrations of biochemical markers related to nutrition, inflammation and disease, and to investigate how the levels change with age and diet in the rat. To this end, we fed rats from weaning on three diets differing in their protein, carbohydrate and fatty acid content. The diets consisted of a control, nutritionally balanced diet, this same diet supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) beef tallow, and a diet that was high in fat and carbohydrate and low in protein. Blood samples from rats at two different ages, 3 months and 12 months, were then analysed. In control rats, with advancing age there was a general decrease in potassium, iron and serum albumin concentrations and in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and an increase in total and HDL cholesterol. These changes were modulated by diet: many of the age-related changes (serum concentrations of potassium, iron and cholesterol, and liver enzyme activities) were not observed in animals eating the high fat diet. In contrast, the high carbohydrate, high fat, low protein diet-fed animals showed several additional changes (serum concentrations of sodium, urea, creatinine and TG, and activity of alkaline phosphatase) that can be related to kidney, liver and cardiovascular health.
Fruit intake associated with urinary estrogen metabolites in healthy premenopausal women  [PDF]
Kerryn W. Reding, Charlotte Atkinson, Kim C. Westerlind, Frank Stanczyk, Erin J. Aiello Bowles, Mellissa Yong, Katherine M. Newton, Johanna W. Lampe
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.21001
Abstract: Urinary concentrations of 2:16-hydroxyestrone (2:16-OHE1) approximate concentrations of 2-OHE1 and 16α-OHE1 in breast tissue. As estrogens are purported to be involved in breast cancer development, the 2:16-OHE1 ratio can provide an indication of estrogen metabolite exposure in the breast. With prior studies observing associations between urinary estrogen metabolites and dietary intakeof fruits, vegetables, and fiberascertained from food questionnaires, we examined associations between dietary factors ascertained through 3-day food records and urinary 2:16-OHE1 in191 pre-menopausal healthy women. Fruit consumption was positively associated with 2:16-OHE1 after adjustment for total energy, ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking history, and serum estradiol (p = 0.003). Fruit consumption was positively associated with 2-OHE1 concentrations (p = 0.006), but was not associated with 16α-OHE1 (p = 0.92). The Musaceae botanical grouping (comprised primarily of bananas) was positively associated with the 2:16-OHE1 ratio, and Rosaceae (comprised of citrus fruits) and Musaceae botanical groupings were positively associated with 2-OHE1 (but not 16α-OHE1) concentrations, after adjustment for confounders. Our data suggest that dietary fruit intakeis associated with urinary 2-OHE1 and the 2:16-OHE1 ratio and that breast tissue exposure to estrogen metabolites may thus be influenced-by diet.
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