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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223009 matches for " Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado "
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Metodología de los gráficos de unión (bond graphs) en aplicaciones biomédicas Bond graph methodology in biomedical applications
Diego Edgardo Fuentes Herrera,Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2012,
Abstract: Se presentan las aplicaciones realizadas en el campo de la medicina y la biología usando la técnica gráfica de modelado conocida como gráficos de unión (bond graphs), con el objetivo de mostrar las diferentes formas en las que se han usado los gráficos de unión como herramienta para la obtención de modelos y simulaciones de sistemas biológicos. Para el análisis de los trabajos realizados por los investigadores se hace una clasificación de los campos de aplicación con el fin de tener una visión más clara de lo diversa que ha sido la adaptación de esta metodología. Asimismo se discuten las posibilidades aún no exploradas, es decir, se habla de la aplicabilidad de los gráficos de unión en campos adicionales a los tratados en las referencias. The paper presents applications carried out in the field of medicine and biology using the graphical modeling technique known as bond graphs, with the purpose of showing the different ways in which bond graphs have been used to obtain models and simulations of biological systems. To approach the work done by researchers, a classification is made of the fields of application, so as to obtain a clearer view of the variety of adaptations undergone by the methodology. Possibilities not yet explored are also discussed, i.e. comments are included on the applicability of bond graphs to fields other than those mentioned in the references.
Antecedentes, historia y pronóstico de la displasia del desarrollo de la cadera
Silva-Caicedo,Octavio; Garzón-Alvarado,Diego Alexander;
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: hip dysplasia is a disease present in children under two years, but may to have significant consequences in adulthood; even it may leads to a hip osteoarthrosis and thus, to provoke disability in young adults. the his dysplasia is a bone affection that may to have its origin in congenital, hereditary or degenerative disorders that a medium term may to cause of an inappropriate formation in hip joint (coxofemoral) and claudication, and at long term, an excessive corrosion and disability. thus, updated studies are necessary relating the more significant advances in understanding, development, prognosis and treatment of this important entity affecting 15-20 by each 1 000 children and its major victims are the newborn girls. from this point of view, the aim of present paper is to present the backgrounds, history and prognosis of hip dysplasia development. therefore, present paper may to be very important for physicians, orthopedists, and physiotherapists updating on hip dysplasia.
Factores mecánicos en enfermedades osteocondrales
Gamboa Márquez,Alejandro; Garzón-Alvarado,Diego Alexander;
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: the osteochondroses are diseases affecting the developing skeleton and that in its advanced stages provoke deformations and changes of physical activity and movement patterns of the subjects. to achieve an effectiveness therapeutic intervention or to detect the diseases in its earliest stagers, it is necessary to know it etiology, which remains uncertain and generally it is classes as mulfifactor and idiopathic. since they are bone growth diseases, these same responsible factors influenced on the disease pathogenesis including the mechanical loads underwent by bones. in past decades computer models have been developed to represent the mechanic factors on the bone growth allowing us to improve the understanding of mechanic implications associated to growth which corresponding with the experimental observations. in present paper is shown a review of current knowledge on boner growth process, osteochondrosis etiology and some computer models which, with some modifications or improvements, could be used in the future to modeling the disease course.
Síntesis topológica de mecanismos flexibles para aplicaciones biomédicas
Narváez,Carlos Alberto; Garzón-Alvarado,Diego Alexander;
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2010,
Abstract: feasible mechanisms are mechanical devices designed to transform displacements, strengths or energy through flexibility of its structural elements. its advantages versus rigid links mechanisms with pinnate joints becoming a viable alternative for the biomes design since they are systems requiring high movement accuracy at very reduced scale level. the feasible mechanisms design may be carried out using structural optimization techniques where that of topology type is the more used. in prior researches we developed a new topology optimization method inspired in the bone regeneration process known as the method of hybrid cellular automaton, which showed its applicability and computer effectiveness in the topology synthesis of these devices. the aim of present paper is to spread the method to feasible mechanisms synthesis for biomedical publications, specifically, for the design of a microclamp for the fibroblasts management. optimal topology achieved is in correspondence with the designs mentioned in other researches. results allow to carry out the manufacture of this device because of they haven't de facto joints or patterns in chessboard, which are typical errors to solve the topology optimization by means of other solutions methods.
Modelamiento matemático de la enfermedad de Legg-Calvé-Perthes
Gamboa Márquez,Alejandro; Garzón-Alvarado,Diego Alexander;
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: the legg-calvé-perthes disease is a disorder characterized by the avascular necrosis of femoral head of developing skeleton. although this disease was described a century ago still there is a significant controversy on its etiology and its treatment. between etiology and treatment there is a close relation with biological and mechanical events. the knowledge of such events and of its combined action, could give rise to a better understanding and management of this disease. present paper proposes a approach to this understanding by means of the use of a computer modeling, which must to has into account among other factors, the disease pathogenesis and the different results depending on age of appearance in the child.
Síntesis topológica de mecanismos flexibles para aplicaciones biomédicas Topology synthesis of feasible for biomedical applications
Carlos Alberto Narváez,Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2010,
Abstract: Los mecanismos flexibles son dispositivos mecánicos dise ados para transformar desplazamientos, fuerzas o energía a través de la flexibilidad de sus elementos estructurales. Sus ventajas frente a los mecanismos de eslabones rígidos con juntas pinadas los convierten en una alternativa viable para el dise o de BioMEMS, ya que son sistemas que requieren alta precisión de movimiento a escalas de tama o muy reducidas. El dise o de mecanismos flexibles puede realizarse con el empleo de técnicas de optimización estructural, es la optimización topológica la más empleada. En investigaciones previas se desarrolló un nuevo método de optimización topológica inspirado en el proceso de regeneración ósea conocido como el Método de los autómatas celulares híbridos, el cual demostró su aplicabilidad y eficiencia computacional en la síntesis topológica de estos dispositivos. El objetivo de este artículo es extender el método a la síntesis de mecanismos flexibles para aplicaciones biomédicas, específicamente, para el dise o de una micropinza para manipulación de fibroblastos. La topología óptima obtenida corresponde con los dise os referidos en otras investigaciones. Los resultados permiten llevar a cabo la manufactura del dispositivo gracias a que no presentan juntas de facto o patrones de tablero de ajedrez, que son errores típicos en la solución de problemas de optimización topológica mediante otros métodos de solución. Feasible mechanisms are mechanical devices designed to transform displacements, strengths or energy through flexibility of its structural elements. Its advantages versus rigid links mechanisms with pinnate joints becoming a viable alternative for the BioMES design since they are systems requiring high movement accuracy at very reduced scale level. The feasible mechanisms design may be carried out using structural optimization techniques where that of topology type is the more used. In prior researches we developed a new topology optimization method inspired in the bone regeneration process known as the Method of hybrid cellular automaton, which showed its applicability and computer effectiveness in the topology synthesis of these devices. The aim of present paper is to spread the method to feasible mechanisms synthesis for biomedical publications, specifically, for the design of a microclamp for the fibroblasts management. Optimal topology achieved is in correspondence with the designs mentioned in other researches. Results allow to carry out the manufacture of this device because of they haven't de facto joints or patterns in chessboard, which are typi
Factores mecánicos en enfermedades osteocondrales Mechanical factors of osteochondral diseases
Alejandro Gamboa Márquez,Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: Las osteocondrosis son enfermedades que afectan al esqueleto en crecimiento y que en sus estados avanzados producen deformaciones y cambios de los patrones de actividad física y movimiento del individuo. Para lograr una intervención terapéutica efectiva o detectar la enfermedad en sus estados iniciales, es necesario conocer su etiología, la cual sigue siendo incierta y generalmente se cataloga simplemente como multifactorial e idiopática. Como se trata de enfermedades del crecimiento óseo, los mismos factores responsables de este tienen efectos sobre la patogénesis de la enfermedad; dentro de estos se incluyen las cargas mecánicas a las que están sometidos los huesos. En las últimas décadas se han desarrollado modelos computacionales para modelar el efecto de los factores mecánicos sobre el crecimiento de los huesos, los cuales han permitido mejorar la comprensión de las implicaciones mecánicas asociadas al crecimiento y se han correspondido con las observaciones experimentales. En este artículo se muestra una revisión del conocimiento actual del proceso de crecimiento óseo, la etiología de las osteocondrosis y algunos modelos computacionales, que con ciertas modificaciones o mejoras pudieran emplearse en el futuro para modelar el transcurso de la enfermedad. The osteochondroses are diseases affecting the developing skeleton and that in its advanced stages provoke deformations and changes of physical activity and movement patterns of the subjects. To achieve an effectiveness therapeutic intervention or to detect the diseases in its earliest stagers, it is necessary to know it etiology, which remains uncertain and generally it is classes as mulfifactor and idiopathic. Since they are bone growth diseases, these same responsible factors influenced on the disease pathogenesis including the mechanical loads underwent by bones. In past decades computer models have been developed to represent the mechanic factors on the bone growth allowing us to improve the understanding of mechanic implications associated to growth which corresponding with the experimental observations. In present paper is shown a review of current knowledge on boner growth process, osteochondrosis etiology and some computer models which, with some modifications or improvements, could be used in the future to modeling the disease course.
Antecedentes, historia y pronóstico de la displasia del desarrollo de la cadera Backgrounds, history and prognosis of hip dysplasia development
Octavio Silva-Caicedo,Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: La displasia de cadera es una enfermedad que se presenta en ni os menores de dos a os, pero puede tener consecuencias importantes en edad adulta, incluso, puede llevar a osteoartrosis de cadera, y por tanto, desembocar en invalidez en adultos jóvenes. La displasia de cadera es una afección ósea que puede tener su raíz en defectos congénitos, hereditarios, o degenerativos que llevan a una formación inadecuada de la articulación de la cadera (coxofemoral) que puede provocar, a mediano plazo, una deficiente formación de la articulación y cojera y a largo plazo, desgaste excesivo de la articulación e invalidez. Por tanto, se requieren estudios actualizados que relaten los avances más importantes en la comprensión, desarrollo, pronóstico y tratamiento de esta importante enfermedad que afecta de 15 a 20 por cada 1 000 ni os y tiene como principal víctima a las ni as recién nacidas. Desde este punto de vista el objetivo de este artículo es presentar el estado del arte, los antecedentes, historia y pronóstico de la displasia del desarrollo de la cadera. Por tanto, este trabajo puede ser de especial importancia para los médicos, ortopedistas y fisioterapeutas que requieran de una actualización en el tema de la displasia de la cadera. Hip dysplasia is a disease present in children under two years, but may to have significant consequences in adulthood; even it may leads to a hip osteoarthrosis and thus, to provoke disability in young adults. The his dysplasia is a bone affection that may to have its origin in congenital, hereditary or degenerative disorders that a medium term may to cause of an inappropriate formation in hip joint (coxofemoral) and claudication, and at long term, an excessive corrosion and disability. Thus, updated studies are necessary relating the more significant advances in understanding, development, prognosis and treatment of this important entity affecting 15-20 by each 1 000 children and its major victims are the newborn girls. From this point of view, the aim of present paper is to present the backgrounds, history and prognosis of hip dysplasia development. Therefore, present paper may to be very important for physicians, orthopedists, and physiotherapists updating on hip dysplasia.
Modelamiento matemático de la enfermedad de Legg-Calvé-Perthes Mathematical modeling of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
Alejandro Gamboa Márquez,Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2011,
Abstract: La enfermedad de Legg-Calvé-Perthes es un desorden caracterizado por la necrosis avascular de la cabeza femoral del esqueleto en desarrollo. Aunque la enfermedad fue descrita hace un siglo, aún existe gran controversia respecto a su etiología y al tratamiento que se le debe dar. Tanto la etiología como el tratamiento tienen una fuerte relación con eventos biológicos y mecánicos. Un entendimiento de dichos eventos y de su acción combinada, podría dar lugar a una mejor comprensión y manejo de la enfermedad. Este trabajo propone un acercamiento a esta comprensión mediante el uso del modelamiento computacional, el cual debe tener en cuenta, entre otros factores, la patogénesis de la enfermedad y los diferentes resultados en dependencia de la edad a la cual esta se manifieste en el ni o. The Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is a disorder characterized by the avascular necrosis of femoral head of developing skeleton. Although this disease was described a century ago still there is a significant controversy on its etiology and its treatment. Between etiology and treatment there is a close relation with biological and mechanical events. The knowledge of such events and of its combined action, could give rise to a better understanding and management of this disease. Present paper proposes a approach to this understanding by means of the use of a computer modeling, which must to has into account among other factors, the disease pathogenesis and the different results depending on age of appearance in the child.
Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations
Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca,Diego Alexander Garzón-Alvarado
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/748302
Abstract: We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. 1. Introduction Most of the long bones of the mammals skeletal system are developed from a process called endochondral growth [1–4]. This process ends with the gradual production of bone from cartilage tissue during fetal development and postnatal growth. The process of ossification occurs from a hyaline cartilage tissue mold, which has a similar shape to the bone in a mature stage. The cartilage tissue molds are formed through the condensation of mesenchymal cells [5] followed by their differentiation into chondrocytes (cells that produce and maintain cartilage matrix) and secretion of typical components of the extracellular matrix of cartilage [6]. Once the mold of cartilage is formed, it is invaded initially in its center and then at each end by a mixture of cells that give rise to the appearance of primary and secondary centers of ossification, respectively, [7–9]. The ossification centers invade the cartilage gradually until it is completely replaced by bone tissue, except the articular surfaces. In this way, and eventually the bones reach their skeletal maturity [10]. The processes of endochondral development, growth, and elongation of the bones are made by the continuous addition of cartilage and subsequent replacement by bone tissue. During the chondrocytes differentiation process, the matrix composition changes dramatically through the production of other components such as collagen type X, the expression of
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