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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 176686 matches for " Dias Jo?o Carlos Pinto "
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Elimination of Chagas disease transmission: perspectives
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000900007
Abstract: one hundred years after its discovery by carlos chagas, american trypanosomiasis, or chagas disease, remains an epidemiologic challenge. neither a vaccine nor an ideal specific treatment is available for most chronic cases. therefore, the current strategy for countering chagas disease consists of preventive actions against the vector and transfusion-transmitted disease. here, the present challenges, including congenital and oral transmission of trypanosoma cruzi infections, as well as the future potential for chagas disease elimination are discussed in light of the current epidemiological picture. finally, a list of challenging open questions is presented about chagas disease control, patient management, programme planning and priority definitions faced by researchers and politicians.
Southern Cone Initiative for the elimination of domestic populations of Triatoma infestans and the interruption of transfusion Chagas disease: historical aspects, present situation, and perspectives
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762007005000092
Abstract: created in 1991 by the governments of argentina, bolivia, brazil, chile, paraguay, and uruguay, the southern cone initiative (sci) has been extremely important for chagas disease control in this region. its basic objective was to reach the interruption of this disease, chiefly by means of the elimination of the principal vector triatoma infestans and by the selection of safe donors in the regional blood banks. after a summarized historic of sci, the text shows the advance of technical and operative activities, emphasizing some factors for the initiative success, as well as some difficulties and constraints. the future of sci will depend of the continuity of the actions and of political priority. scientific community has been highly responsible for this initiative and its maintenance. at the side of this, national and international efforts must be involved and reinforced to assure the accomplishment of the final targets of sci. very specially, the pan american health organization has cooperated with the initiative in all its moments and activities,being the most important catalytic and technical factor for sci success.
Prospec??o da doen?a de Chagas na regi?o de Janaúba, Minas Gerais
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1976, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761976000300005
Abstract: a prospective activity on chagas' disease is reported in a wide region of colonization projects at the northern part of minas gerais. triatomine-trypanosome search and sorological clinical inquiry among the population revealed a marked presence of triatoms in the area, with more than 60% of the dwellings infested by t. infestans or t. sordida, with global indexes of positiveness to t. (s.) cruzi at the level of 6.0% of the captured bugs. two distinct situations are defined according to the dwelling place of these species, t. infestans being undoubtedly associated to the precarious patterns of the poorer population's dwellings, especially in lagedinho and gado bravo, with high indexes of domicile density of this species. t. sordida apparently prevails on the southern part of janaúba, and we may suggest that the species is still in the predominant wild phase, with sporadic domiciliated foci. the analysis of the population reveals relative high indexes of infection (about 10%), sorologically demonstrated, showing recent transmission through positive examinations in low-aged persons. the apparent scarcity of serious clinical forms suggests at first that chagas' disease is, at the moment, being implanted as a human disease and is reproducing there, which must have occurred in a large extension of the nation, for the past two hundred years. parallel to the ecological study of the interaction man-vector-trypanosome, the detected situation seems to constitute an important model for concrete and actual situations, as the conquest of amazonia inclusive and specially in relation to the measures taken regarding the convenient prevention in benefit of the pioneer populations.
Reinfesta??o do município de Bambuí por Triatomíneos transmiss?res da doen?a de Chagas
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1968, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761968000200006
Abstract: statistical studies made in bambuí (9 localities), show that the sprouting anew and the multiplication of the triatomidae are processing themselves slowly through the residual foci and from the bordering districts. the principal species is p. megistus, there being a small percentage of t. infestans, leading its greater possibilities of exterminating this species with the present schemes. buildings of primitive masonry seem to be a greater prophilatic problems than the mud huts. infection of the captured triatomidae remain very low. comments on phophylatical performances are made, emphasis being put on the importance of periodical researches in endemic regions.
Reinfesta??o do Município de Bambuí por triatomíneos transmissores da Doen?a de Chagas
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1965, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761965000100009
Abstract: a survey of the district of bambuí, minas gerais, brasil, has been made in relation to the density of the tritomids and the indexes of infection fo the s. cruzi after an experimental erradicational campaign made by dias in 1956. a total of 332 dwellings was examined (in four localities chosen at random), 59 focuses having been found (14.76%): 15,3% of these had been already detected by dias in the third phase of his experimental campaign, (revision phase) six years ago, and were considered "residual focuses". the p. megistus focuses (68%) were predominant over the t. infestans (28%) and there was an association of the 2 species in 4%. the great majority of the focuses (72.9%) occurred in the interior of brick houses ("térreos"). only 27,10% of the focuses were found in the poor houses of straw roof. wild focuses were not found. it must be stressed the occurence of three acute cases of the disease that were registered this year at the "p?sto do instituto oswaldo cruz" of bambuí, the first ones to appear after the 1956-campaign; also the great acceptance of the population to the work done, thus demonstrating the great importance of the sanitary education which has been given to the district for many years. concluding: althoug the work done by dias in 1956 did not completely erradicate the triatomids from the district, it was efficient for 6 years even though the campaign was not thoroughtly performed (the third phase of inspection and control was not completed). the re-infestation of the district is due to: 1) residual focuses not detecte. 2) residual focuses erradicated (15%). 3) re-infestation due to surrounding districts. 4) technical omissions during the desinsectization. other studies will complement the present work, stressing other factors that limited the pioneer work of e. dias. only then, an affirmation over the failure or the sucess of a method, may be made.
Globaliza??o, iniqüidade e doen?a de Chagas
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007001300003
Abstract: chagas disease (american trypanosomiasis) bears a close relationship to multiple social and political aspects involving issues of globalization and inequity. such relations concern the process of disease production and control in parallel with medical management. despite the poverty in latin america and various problems related to inequities and globalization, chagas disease has been controlled in several areas, a fact that reinforces the countries' self-reliance. several problems and challenges related to the disease can be expected in the future, mainly concerning medical care for already infected individuals and the sustainability of effective epidemiological surveillance. both points depend heavily on improved performance by the national health systems, principally in terms of their efficiency and their capacity to overcome inequity. a particularly important role has been attributed to the latin american scientific and academic community in the implementation and sustainability of efficient control policies. control activities have now evolved towards internationally shared initiatives, a major new stride forward in the region's political context.
Doen?a de Chagas, ambiente, participa??o e Estado
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2001000700026
Abstract: human chagas disease (hcd) affects 16 million latin americans and is related to environmental and social questions like education, anthropogenic changes, housing, and migration. hcd requires domiciliation of the vector, which is introduced from sylvatic ecotopes or transported passively by humans. hcd is difficult to treat but possible to prevent. as a disease concentrating among poor individuals and regions, its control requires government intervention, involving education, community participation, and access to medical care. public policies are required for hcd control, requiring participation by political parties and social control of public agencies to ensure program continuity. a consistent environmental policy is needed to prevent the spread of hcd to new areas such as the amazon region. finally, partnerships among affected countries can help foster hcd control, raising self-esteem and helping promote a new political order in latin america.
Problemas e possibilidades de participa??o comunitária no controle das grandes endemias no Brasil
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1998000600003
Abstract: community participation (cp) is considered one of the most important elements for the control of endemic diseases in poor countries, particularly for prevention and epidemiological surveillance. mainly affecting the poorest segments of the population, endemic diseases are costly and require specific government action aimed at efficient, egalitarian, universal health system, where cp acts in a guardian, monitoring capacity and entails other specific tasks. despite its rationality, cp has not been encouraged in countries like brazil, due to the highly centralized nature of political power and activity. several examples and situations of cp in brazilian endemic diseases are described and discussed in the article. cp for endemic disease control should be seen as an ongoing social process, a profound social exercise, and a great challenge for the country as a whole and the new unified health system now being implemented in brazil.
Vigilancia epidemiológica em doen?a de Chagas
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2000000800005
Abstract: chagas disease still constitutes an important medical problem in affected countries. in some, the extent of the disease is still unknown and control programs have not been implemented. in others the disease has been reduced due to regular control programs and other economic and social factors. epidemiological surveillance with community participation to guard against disease transmission is now the basic challenge. applied research and in-depth reformulation of health systems are required to establish efficient and sustainable chagas disease surveillance programs, considering low density of peridomiciliary vectors as the most relevant factor. in addition, a large population of already infected, poor individuals require specific medical attention and social security. as a consequence of health care decentralization, federal institutions such as the brazilian national health foundation (fns) are being progressively decommissioned, and new participants must be engaged in the process. communities themselves, together with regional and local institutions, must take charge of surveillance in order to guarantee its efficiency and sustainability.
Os primórdios do controle da doen?a de Chagas (em homenagem a Emmanuel Dias, pioneiro do controle, no centenário de seu nascimento)
Dias, Joo Carlos Pinto;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822011000800003
Abstract: very soon carlos chagas took into account the need of trypanosomiasis control, considering its great social impact and geographical dispersion the vector was considered the more vulnerable target and housing improvement the basic strategy to face the disease. in parallel, it was required a more clinical visibility for the disease, as an argument for its control. the first concrete tentative ocorred in 1918 when souza araújo dedicating his efforts in paraná, trying housing improvement. he was followed by ezequiel dias et al, in 1921, employing chemical compounds against the vector, the chemical fight will be retaken by emmanuel dias in 1944, assaying several old compounds, fire thrower and cyanidric gas. in 1946, ddt showed to be ineffective, but one year later dias & pellegrino described the insecticide gammexane, higly effective against domestic triatomines. working with mario pinotti, expanded trials occurred in minas gerais (triangle region), justifying the expansion of the campaing to other endemic regions, with the rationale of continuous work in contiguous areas. in 1957 pedreira de freitas proposed the selective spraying, which was the model for the future strategy of program evaluation, by suven and sucan organizations. in 1975 the national program is reorganized, launching two national surveys (entomology and serology). in 1979 the new pyrethroid compounds are tried and im 1983 the national program is expanded. transfusion transmitted chagas disease was studied since the 1950 by the nussenzweig group in s. paulo, showing to be vulnerable to chemoprophylaxis and blood donor pre transfusional serologic screening. nevertheless, these preventive measures only were implemented in the 1980 decade, following the emergence of hiv/aids pandemic. practically, since the pioneer essays, the control of chagas disease transmission showed to be efficient against vector and blood bank mechanisms, depending on continuity, educative support and political will.
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