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Refractometric Studies on Molecular Interactions in Six Binary Liquid Mixtures  [PDF]
Nizamul Haque Ansari, Anand Trivedi, Dhirendra Kumar Sharma, Prakash Chandra
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2014.41001
Abstract:

Refractive indices of the six binary mixtures between N-Butyl bromide with Aniline, Benzene, Xylene, Carbon tetrachloride, n-Heptane and Toluene for the entire concentration range have been measured at 303.15 K. Furthermore, deviation in refractive indices from ideal mixture, molar refraction, deviation in molar refraction from ideal values for these mixtures has also been evaluated. The results are discussed in term of molecular interactions between the components of the binary mixtures.

Tobacco Use in A Rural Area of Bihar, India
Sinha Dhirendra,Gupta Prakash,Pednekar Mangesh
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2003,
Abstract:
EVALUATION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF MILK EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM NUT
Dhirendra Prakash,M.C. Bindal,Santosh Kumar Gupta,A K Gupta
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04335
Abstract: Semicarpus anacardium ‘Marketing Nut’ is a tropical flowering plant widely distributed in India. Semicarpus anacardium are widely used for its therapeutic potential as immunomodulatory and in folklore the plant material is reported in the treatment of diuretic. Since, the diuretic activity of these plant materials has not been investigated in scientifically controlled studies; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of milk extracts of Semicarpus anacardium seed in normal rats after acute and sub-chronic oral administration. Milk extracts of Semicarpus anacardium seed (150 and 300 mg/kg) along with the reference drug, furosemide (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats for 8 subsequent days and their urine output was quantitated at several intervals of time after the dose. Several other parameters such as urinary electrolyte concentration, plasma electrolyte concentration and creatinine clearance were also measured by flame spectrophotometry and Jaffe alkaline picrate method. After administration of single dose of the milk extracts of Semicarpus anacardium seed, urine output significantly showed equivalent increment at all time points, and at 24 h after the dose, the total volume of urine excreted was highest in furosemide followed by plant extracts and control group. Both extracts increased the urinary levels of Na+ and K+, to about the same extent, while furosemide increased urinary levels of only Na+ and decreased urinary K+. Despite changes in urinary excretion of the electrolytes, plasma Na+ and K+ levels were not affected by any of the substances. The present study supports the ethnomedical use of Semicarpus anacardium seed for their diuretic effect.
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ROSA CANINA L. ON STRESS INDUCED REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES IN FEMALE RATS
Santosh Kumar Gupta,Amit Gupta,Dhirendra Prakash,A.K. Gupta
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Here we evaluate the aqueous extract of Rosa canina L. hips in treating female reproductive dysfunctions. Restraint stress (for 3h/day for 28 days) was used as stressor to induced changes in reproductive dysfunctions. Rats were pretreated with 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg b.w. for 15 days with Aqueous extract of Rosa canina L. hips and were continued for next 28 days along with induction of stress. Assessment of its effectiveness was done by observing changes in estrous cycle and weight of the organs studies. Rosa canina L. treated rats showed significant changes in the different phases of estrous cycle and restored to normal. Improvement in the weight of ovaries, uteri, liver and decrease in the weight of adrenal glands were also seen when compared with stressed control. From the experimental studies, aqueous extract of Rosa canina L. hips at two different doses showed promising improvement in treating female reproductive dysfunctions induced by restraint stress. The above activity may be due to the presence of various secondary metabolites like ascorbic acids, tocopherols, bioflavonoids, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and other constituents present the in Aqueous extract of Rosa canina L. hips.
Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India
Sze Hang Fu, Prabhat Jha, Prakash C. Gupta, Rajesh Kumar, Rajesh Dikshit, Dhirendra Sinha
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102416
Abstract: Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. Results There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. Conclusion These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended.
Compact Low Pass Filter Design for L-Band Application  [PDF]
Dhirendra Kumar, Asok De
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.34018
Abstract: An effective technique to design compact low pass filter has been proposed in this paper. The proposed method is highly effective for L-band applications. Low impedance microstrip lines are arranged such that they work as open stubs to increase the selectivity of the filter. Using the proposed technique about 57% size reduction has been realized with sharper roll off characteristics. An empirical expression is derived to determine the dimension of resonators. For cut-off frequency of 1.7 GHz the investigated method has been fabricated and tested. There is a close agreement be-tween simulated and measured results
Effective Size Reduction Technique for Microstrip Filters  [PDF]
Dhirendra Kumar, Asok De
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2013.54027
Abstract:

In this paper an effective size reduction technique using fractal structure is suggested. The proposed technique has been applied on a band stop and a low pass filter separately. This technique provides 42% reduction of size for the band stop filter and about 26% for the low pass counterpart. Both the designed structures are fabricated and the measured results are compared with the simulated results. The proposed technique does not require any recalculation or optimization of dimensions of the filter, and is straightforward to implement. The band stop filter is designed for the center frequency of 3 GHz where as the cut-off frequency for low pass filter is 2.5 GHz. A good agreement between the simulated and measured results is observed. A comprehensible explanation of the proposed technique is also provided.

Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Thirteen Low and Middle Income Countries: Evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey
Krishna M. Palipudi, Prakash C. Gupta, Dhirendra N. Sinha, Linda J. Andes, Samira Asma, Tim McAfee, on behalf of the GATS Collaborative Group
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033466
Abstract: Background Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008–2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate a significant but varied role of social determinants on current tobacco use within and across countries.
Role of Enterprise Excellence Initiative
DHIRENDRA KUMAR
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n8p3
Abstract: The Enterprise Excellence (EE) philosophy is a holistic model for leading an enterprise to total excellence by focusing on the needs of the customer whether within the state, the nation, and the world. The rate of change in today’s competitive world is constantly increasing. Competition is forcing businesses to be well funded and at the same time, customers are becoming unpredictable. These requirements are creating practical problems of the modern world and the applied research initiative will solve these problems. For example, applied research from enterprise point of view will focus on uncovering what needs are not being met within a targeted market and use that information to begin formulating products or services (including existing products) that will be attractive and desirable. Therefore, to catalyze the transformation of economies tied to these industries, the Enterprise Excellence Initiative (EEI) must be nurtured and developed.
THE SECURITY OF INFORMATION EXCHANGE: E- COMMERCE
Dhirendra Pandey
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: This paper is mainly concerned with the study in which how we can make our electronic transaction more safely and protective and also concerned with research or the security technology, key technology and current application protocol of payment transaction on network, and gives some useful suggestions and countermeasures for the development of protective payment transaction on network and safety E-business system. As we know network payment is a key button for understanding and perceptive of E-commerce, and safety electronic transaction is the base of banks participating in E-commerce, so that this paper concentrates about safety analysis on payment system of e-commerce network. Index Terms: E- Commerce, Encryption, Information Exchange, Security, Safety.
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