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Extended release matrix tablets of Stavudine: Formulation and in vitro evaluation
Saravanakumar M,Venkateswaramurthy N,Dhachinamoorthi D,Perumal P
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: During the past two decades, there has been a steady increase in both the number of antiretroviral medications and the number of possible regimens available to manage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). But still, regimen fails due to some reasons such as toxicity, adverse effects, and consequent difficulties with patient adherence. Stavudine is the Food and Drug Administration approved drug for clinical use for the treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS related conditions, either alone or in combination with other antiviral agents. The side effects of Stavudine are dose dependent and a reduction of the total administered dose reduces the severity of the toxicity. To reduce the frequency of administration and to improve patient compliance, a once daily sustained release formulation of Stavudine is desirable. Hence, in the present work, an attempt has been made to develop once daily sustained release matrix tablets of Stavudine using putative hydrophilic matrix materials such as hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and Carbopol 974P. The prepared extended release tablets were then evaluated for various physical tests like diameter, thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, and drug content uniformity. The results of all these tests were found to be satisfactory. Formulation F9 extended the drug release till the end of 24 hours and showed higher r values for zero order plot, indicating that drug release followed zero order kinetics. This finding reveals that above a particular concentration, HPMC K4M and Carbopol 974P are capable of providing almost zero order drug release.
Fabrication and evaluation of oral tablets using natural mucoadhesive agent from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) SW
Jeevanandham S,Dhachinamoorthi D,Senthil V,Chandra Sekhar K
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Oral mucoadhesive sustained drug delivery systems of salbutamol sulfate were formulated using an isolated natural agent from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The isolated material was evaluated for various parameters, such as, melting point, viscosity, pH, elemental analysis, swelling index, phytochemical constituents, and solubility studies. The mucoadhesive characters of the isolated substance were identified by a comparative study with hydroxyl propyl cellulose and sodium alginate, by various in vitro methods, such as, Shear stress measurement, Wilhelmy′s method, Falling sphere method, and Detachment force measurement. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive oral tablets of salbutamol sulfate (100 mg), using isolated natural materials in different proportions, and in vitro release studies, were carried out for three different formulations according to the U.S.P apparatus two (paddle method). Each 100 mg tablet was taken in 900 ml of acid buffer 1.2 and maintained at 37 C. After two hours the filtrate was collected and replaced in buffer 7.4. In vitro releases of three different formulations for nine hours were studied, which showed the sustained action of drug release with increasing the concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations.
Formulation and evaluation of naproxen sodium orodispersible tablets - A sublimation technique
Jeevanandham S,Dhachinamoorthi D,Chandra Sekhar K,Muthukumaran M
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The rationale of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of naproxen sodium using camphor as a subliming agent. Orodispersible tablets of naproxen sodium were prepared by the wet granulation technique using camphor as a subliming agent and sodium starch glycolate together with crosscarmellose sodium as superdisintegrants. Camphor was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed into tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, and in vitro dissolution. All the formulations showed low weight variation with dispersion time less than 55 s and rapid in vitro dissolution. Sublimation of camphor from tablets resulted in superior tablets as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The results revealed that the tablets containing the subliming agent had a good dissolution profile. The drug content of all the formulations was within the acceptable limits of the United States Pharmacopoeia XXVII. The optimized formulation showed good release profile with maximum drug being released at all time intervals. It was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved naproxen sodium dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing a suitable subliming agent. This work helped in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables especially the subliming agent on the drug release profile.
Independent release behavior of Glipizide matrix release tablets containing chitosan and xanthan gum
Ramanji reddy,,Dr. D. Dhachinamoorthi,Dr. K.B. Chandrasekhar
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH, buffer species and ionic strength on the release mechanism of Glipizide (G) from matrix tablets containing chitosan and xanthan gum prepared by a hot-melt extrusion process. The release mechanisms were controlled by the solubility and ionic properties of the polymers. All directly compressed (DC) tablets prepared in this study also exhibited pH and buffer species dependent release. In contrast, the HME tablets containing both chitosan and xanthan gum exhibited pH and buffer species independent sustained release. When placed in 0.1N HCl, the HME tablets formed a hydrogel that functioned to retard drug release in subsequent pH 6.8 and 7.4 phosphate buffers even when media contained high ionic strength, whereas tablets without chitosan did not form a hydrogel to retard drug release in 0.1N HCl.
Development and characterization of buccoadhesive bilayer famotidine tablets
M. Alagusundaram, C. Madhusudhana Chetty,,D.Dhachinamoorthi
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The buccoadhesive controlled release tablets for delivery of Famotidine were prepared by direct compression of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K100), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC), poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) with carbomer (CP 934) and ethyl cellulose (EC) was used as impermeable baking layer. The prepared formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, swelling index, surface pH, ex vivo buccoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release studies. The distinguishable differences in the results were shown to be dependent on characteristics and composition of bioadhesive materials used and the results are reproducible. Stability studies were performed in natural human saliva and accelerated conditions showed no significant differences in physical appearance, drug content, buccoadhesive strength. Ex vivo muco irritation by histological examination reveals, the administration site of buccal tablet should not cause any irritation and inflammation. Ex vivo permeation studies reveals that there was no significant difference between in vitro and ex vivo permeation. Drug diffusion from buccal tablets showed apparently zero order kinetics and release mechanism was diffusion controlled after considerable swelling evidenced by kinetic models.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA EXTRACTS
R. Saravanan,D. Dhachinamoorthi,K. Senthilkumar,M. Srilakshmi
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Deadly diseases of this century were mainly caused by bacterial and fungal infections. Biologically important plants were discovered by evaluation of ethno pharmacological data and they are locally populated with immediate therapeutic action. Because of severe toxic effects produced by today’s synthetic drugs the alternative medical system has come into existence. These alternative systems were devoid of the side effects produced in the body up to allopathic drugs were concerned. The aim of the current study was to investigate antibacterial activity of the ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of Euphorbia hirta L against clinically important bacterial sp. Different concentrations of crude drugs such 25μg/ml, 50μg/ml, 75μg/ml, and 100μg/ml were prepared and antibacterial activity was found by using cup-plate method. The result from this study thus showed that ethanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta have potentially deleterious effects on micro-organisms.
Nasal drug delivery system - an overview
M.Alagusundaram, B.Chengaiah, K.Gnanaprakash, S.Ramkanth, C.Madhusudhana Chetty,D.Dhachinamoorthi
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The use of the nasal route for the delivery of challenging drugs such as small polar molecules, vaccines, hormones, peptides and proteins has created much interest in nowadays. Due to the high permeability, high vasculature, low enzymatic environment of nasal cavity and avoidance of hepatic first pass metabolism are well suitable for systemic delivery of drug molecule via nose. Many drug delivery devices for nasal application of liquid, semisolid and solid formulation are investigated to deliver the drugs to the treat most crisis CNS diseases (i.e., Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease) because it requires rapid and/or specific targeting of drugs to the brain. It is well suitable for the delivery of biotechnological products like proteins, peptides, hormones, DNA plasmids for DNA vaccines to give enhanced bioavailability. This review sets out to discuss some factors affecting nasal absorption, bioavailability barriers, strategies to improve nasal absorption, new developments in nasal dosage form design and applications of nasal drug delivery system.
Electrical Conductivity of Collapsed Multilayer Graphene Tubes  [PDF]
D. Mendoza
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering (WJNSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjnse.2012.22009
Abstract: Synthesis of multilayer graphene on copper wires by a chemical vapor deposition method is reported. After copper etching, the multilayer tube collapses forming stripes of graphitic films, their electrical conductance as a function of temperature indicate a semiconductor-like behavior. Using the multilayer graphene stripes, a cross junction is built and owing to its electrical behavior we propose that a tunneling process exists in the device.
Porous Carbon Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper Substrates  [PDF]
D. Mendoza
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2015.38003
Abstract: Amorphous porous carbon was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on copper substrates. The average size of the pores is around 1.2 microns with some small pores decorating the big ones. Lamellar samples of this carbonaceous material can be separated from the copper support and may be useful as electrode due to its low electrical resistivity of the order of 0.4 Ωcm.
Application of Enzyme Extracted from Aloe vera Plant in Chemical Pretreatment of Cotton Knitted Textile to Reduce Pollution Load  [PDF]
D. Jothi
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B007
Abstract:

Nowadays, highly alkaline chemicals like caustic soda, soda ash, silicate, acetic acid and soaping agents are used for scouring to remove the non-cellulosic impurities from the cotton. Using 30 - 40 gm/Kg on weight of the fabric results in destruction of cotton structure. Intensive rinsing and more acid is needed for reutilization of cotton, which enlarges the volume of effluent. Furthermore, these hazards chemicals result in increase in COD, BOD and TDS in waste water. These chemicals also attack the cellulose leading to heavy strength loss and weight loss in the fabric. The net result is low quality control and polluted environment with high usage of energy, time, chemical and water. Aloe vera presents the finest commercial opportunity in various industrial sectors among the various plants. Also, most of the countries are gifted with the unique geographical features that are essential for cultivation of Aloe vera. Yet, none of the country has realized and reaped the full potential of such plants in various industrial applications. The reason is simple: lack of the requisite expertise in extraction of various enzymes present in aloe plant. Fortunately, the technology is now accessible to make use of enzyme in textile application. In this research an attempt has been made to make use of lipase enzyme extracted from aloe plant in textile chemical pre- treatment process. In the present research work, an attempt was made to develop bio scouring of 100% cotton knitted fabric with lipase enzyme extracted from Aloe deberena plant at various concentration (1%, 2% and 3%) at various temperature (40?C, 60?C and 70?C) for a period of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. The properties of bio scoured fabrics are compared with these of conventional scoured one. Encouraging results in terms of dye uptake, dye levelness, wash fastness, light fastness and rubbing fastness are obtained in case of bio scouring fabric dyed with dark reactive colors. Further, it reduces volume of effluent as well as COD, TDS and pH. It saves a substantial thermal energy 50% and electrical energy 40%. Bio scouring waste water has 40% - 50% less COD and 60% less TDS as compared to conventional scouring waste water.

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