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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191473 matches for " Devon D Brewer "
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Knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes in relation to HIV infection in Mozambique
Devon D Brewer
F1000Research , 2012, DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.1-1.v1
Abstract: Background: In prior research, Africans who knew about blood-borne risks were modestly less likely to be HIV-infected than those who were not aware of such risks. Objectives/Methods: I examined the association between knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes and prevalent HIV infection with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. Results: Respondents displayed high awareness of blood exposures and vaginal sex as modes of HIV transmission. However, only about half of respondents were aware of anal sex as a way HIV can be transmitted. After adjustments for demographics and sexual behaviors, respondents who knew that HIV could spread by contact with infected blood or by sharing injection needles or razor blades were less likely to be infected than those who did not know about these risks. Respondents who knew about sexual risks were as, or more, likely to be HIV infected as those who did not know about sexual risks. Also, children of HIV-uninfected mothers were less likely to be infected if their mothers were aware of blood-borne HIV risks than if their mothers were unaware. Conclusion: HIV education campaigns in Mozambique and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa should include a focus on risks from blood exposures and anal sex.
Gynocentric communication among nuclear kin in the USA and Spain
Devon D Brewer
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.647v1
Abstract: Paternity uncertainty seems to have shaped humans' differential investment in kin. I examined sex differences in communication among nuclear kin to expand inquiry on this matter and address some methodological limitations in prior work. I analyzed data from national surveys in the USA and Spain and a study of mobile phone communication in the immediate aftermath of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. Respondents communicated mildly to moderately more with mother than father and more with sister than brother. The differences in communication with mother and father appeared in both subjective survey data and objective mobile telephone records. Across communication modes and studies, women and men did not differ consistently in overall frequency of communication. Matricentric and sororicentric tendencies were larger for the modes likely to involve dyadic communication (such as telelphone calling and texting) than modes which often involve communication in group settings (face-to-face). The tendency to communicate more with female than male kin also appeared to be stronger in women respondents than in men. These results are consistent with paternity uncertainty as an ultimate evolutionary cause of differential investment in kin.
The Protective Effect of Male Circumcision as a Faith Lift for the Troubled Paradigm of HIV Epidemiology in Sub-Saharan Africa
John J Potterat ,Devon D Brewer,Stephen Q Muth,Stuart Brody
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030064
A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute
Devon D. Brewer, John J. Potterat, Stephen Q. Muth, John M. Roberts
PLOS ONE , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000060
Abstract: Background Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the United States, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially.
Digital Epidemiology
Marcel Salathé ,Linus Bengtsson,Todd J. Bodnar,Devon D. Brewer,John S. Brownstein,Caroline Buckee,Ellsworth M. Campbell,Ciro Cattuto,Shashank Khandelwal,Patricia L. Mabry,Alessandro Vespignani
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002616
Abstract: Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.
Immunotherapy in the management of melanoma: current status
Alston D, Brewer JD
ImmunoTargets and Therapy , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ITT.S30824
Abstract: notherapy in the management of melanoma: current status Review (637) Total Article Views Authors: Alston D, Brewer JD Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:2 Pages 1 - 10 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ITT.S30824 Received: 25 September 2012 Accepted: 24 October 2012 Published: 26 February 2013 Dylan Alston,1 Jerry D Brewer2 1Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, 2Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: As the rate of melanoma continues to increase, so does the need for more effective and durable therapies. Despite considerable research, the management of advanced disease remains challenging. Numerous therapies are being investigated, many of which aim at upregulating the immune system's innate ability to attack the tumor. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibodies are immune stimulants that act as negative regulators of the immune system by modifying an antitumor T-cell response. Ipilimumab, one such cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, and vemurafenib, a BRAF competitive inhibitor, were approved as first-line therapies in 2011 due to improved survival rates versus standard chemotherapy. Allovectin-7 is a lipid plasmid that encodes for major histone compatibility complex DNA sequences. It has led to increases in cytotoxic T-cell production, which subsequently attacks the tumor. OncoVEX, an oncolytic herpes virus, and PV-10, a chemoablative agent, have yielded promising results in metastatic lesions and have demonstrated a unique "bystandarder" phenomenon. In this paper we review the basics of melanoma from the pathophysiology, risk factors, signs, diagnostic approaches, and current status of immunologic management of melanoma.
Newer Hemostatic Agents Used in the Practice of Dermatologic Surgery
Jill Henley,Jerry D. Brewer
Dermatology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/279289
Abstract: Minor postoperative bleeding is the most common complication of cutaneous surgery. Because of the commonality of this complication, hemostasis is an important concept to address when considering dermatologic procedures. Patients that have a bleeding diathesis, an inherited/acquired coagulopathy, or who are on anticoagulant/antiplatelet medications pose a greater risk for bleeding complications during the postoperative period. Knowledge of these conditions preoperatively is of the utmost importance, allowing for proper preparation and prevention. Also, it is important to be aware of the various hemostatic modalities available, including electrocoagulation, which is among the most effective and widely used techniques. Prompt recognition of hematoma formation and knowledge of postoperative wound care can prevent further complications such as wound dehiscence, infection, or skin-graft necrosis, minimizing poor outcomes. 1. Introduction Dermatologists are estimated to perform over 3.9 million procedures each year [1]. Although the risks and complications of dermatologic surgery are generally very low, even the most talented surgeon can experience complications related to hemostasis during both the intraoperative and postoperative periods. Minor bleeding complications are the most frequently encountered complications of cutaneous surgery, which can predispose the patient to hematoma formation, increased risk of infection, skin graft necrosis, and wound dehiscence. This chapter will highlight proper hemostasis technique to prevent complications. 2. Overview of Hemostasis By understanding the mechanism behind the physiologic clotting system, it is easier to understand how the different hemostatic agents work in the body. The body’s primary response to injury is reflex vasoconstriction of the blood vessels in the surrounding tissues, followed by formation of the platelet plug and activation of the fibrinolytic clotting cascade. There are two separate pathways of the fibrinolytic clotting system, that lead to the final common pathway and formation of the insoluble fibrin clot. Function of the body’s hemostatic system can be monitored by various laboratory tests. These tests can be helpful to assess the degree of anticoagulation in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications or who have inherited coagulopathies before proceeding with dermatologic procedures (see Table 1). Table 1: Overview of hemostasis. 3. Preoperative Evaluation One of the most important steps that the dermatologist can take to prevent bleeding complications is to gain a thorough
Penile Rehabilitation Therapy with PDE-V Inhibitors Following Radical Prostatectomy: Proceed with Caution
M. Eric Brewer Jr.,Edward D. Kim
Advances in Urology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/852437
Abstract: Penile rehabilitation therapy following radical prostatectomy is a much debated topic. Erectile dysfunction is still a significant contributor to postoperative morbidity following radical prostatectomy, despite meticulous nerve-sparing technique. Secondary smooth muscle changes in the penis have been identified as the underlying causes of penile atrophy, veno-occlusive dysfunction, and fibrosis. Initial observations that intracavernous injection therapies used on a regular basis postoperatively resulted in improvements in the return of spontaneous erectile function led to the development of penile rehabilitation protocols. Chronic dosing of PDE-V inhibitors is now commonly used by urologists after radical prostatectomy. Despite the current enthusiasm of penile rehabilitation therapy, current scientific evidence with clinical trials is still limited.
Robin D. Brewer,Cynthia Lindquist,Lisa Altemueller
International Journal of Instruction , 2011,
Abstract: Globally, teacher dispositions along with knowledge and skills continue to be the focal point of teacher education programs. Teachers influence children’s development and therefore dispositions are a universal concern. For the past 20 years in the United States, teacher education programs have assessed dispositions. We, however, must now also use these assessment results to ensure that teacher candidates are graduating with the knowledge, skills and dispositions to be effective teachers. In this paper, the authors use case study examples to discuss teacher candidates with problematic dispositions and the resulting improvement plan and process using the Preparing Reflective and Effective Practitioners (PDQ-PREP), developed by the authors. The goal of this process is to ensure that all teacher candidates have the opportunity to reflect on their actions and develop or refine the dispositions necessary to be effective professionals.
Anestesia tumescente: técnica auxiliar para excis es extensas em cirurgia dermatológica
Jerry D. Brewer,Randall K. Roenigk
Surgical & Cosmetic Dermatology , 2010,
Abstract: Introdu o: A anestesia local é a forma mais comum de anestesia utilizada em cirurgias cutaneas.Alguns pacientes possuem comorbidades que os colocam no grupo de risco para anestesia geral. A anestesia tumescente é uma técnica que consiste na inje o de uma grande quantidade de anestesia diluída local no plano subcutaneo.A anestesia tumescente pode minimizar o desconforto, auxiliar na hemostasia e contribuir para a facilidade do fechamento de grandes defeitos cirúrgicos que, do contrário, apresentariam dificuldade significativamente maior. Objetivo: O nosso objetivo é discutir os prós e contras da anestesia tumescente na ambito da cirurgia dermatológica.Conclus o: A anestesia tumescente é uma op o viável que pode ajudar na cirurgia cutanea reconstrutiva, especialmente na remo o de tecido no plano subcutaneo profundo ou em fáscias. A anestesia tumescente também é associada a bons resultados e poucas rea es adversas.
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