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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 81 matches for " Devine "
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The Insights of Algorithmic Entropy
Sean Devine
Entropy , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/e11010085
Abstract: The algorithmic entropy of a system, the length of the shortest algorithm that specifies the system’s exact state adds some missing pieces to the entropy jigsaw. Because the approach embodies the traditional entropies as a special case, problematic issues such as the coarse graining framework of the Gibbs’ entropy manifest themselves in a different and more manageable form, appearing as the description of the system and the choice of the universal computing machine. The provisional algorithmic entropy combines the best information about the state of the system together with any underlying uncertainty; the latter represents the Shannon entropy. The algorithmic approach also specifies structure that the traditional entropies take as given. Furthermore, algorithmic entropy provides insights into how a system can maintain itself off equilibrium, leading to Ashby’s law of requisite variety. This review shows how the algorithmic approach can provide insights into real world systems, by outlining recent work on how replicating structures that generate order can evolve to maintain a system far from equilibrium.
An Alternative Approach to Sending All Gallbladders for Histology Following Cholecystectomy?  [PDF]
John-Patrick Devine Byars, Kishore Pursnani
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.31003
Abstract: Background: The question of a selective approach to sending all gallbladders for histology following cholecystectomy has been postulated in many journals but as yet no guidelines have been published in light of such concern. This project will attempt to analyse and address the controversy surrounding sending all gallbladders for histology following cholecystectomy. Objective: To ascertain whether there is a feasible and safe alternative to sending all gallbladders to histology following cholecystectomy and to challenge such a hypothesis. Design: Retrospective study. Methods: Analysis of gallbladder pathology reports, patient medical records and computerised test results from cholecystectomies done in the last 5 years within the Lancashire Teaching Hospital Trust. Results: The alternative selective method based on pre-operative investigations and intra-operative macroscopic detail is shown to be significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results from this study show that there is safe and efficient way of selecting which gallbladders are sent for histology based on age, pre-surgical suspicion and intra-operative macroscopic abnormalities.
An Algorithmic Information Theory approach to the emergence of order using simple replication models
Sean D Devine
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: This paper applies Algorithmic Information Theory to simple examples of replication processes to illustrate how replicating structures can generate and maintain order in a non equilibrium system. Variation in replicating structures enhances the system's ability to maintain homeostasis in a changing environment by allowing it to evolve to a more restricted region of its state space. Stability is further enhanced when replicating systems develop dependencies, by sharing information or resources. Such systems co-evolve, becoming more independent of the external environment. Nested systems have a hierarchy of dependency but have low algorithmic entropy as they are in principle simpler to describe algorithmically. Nesting of replicating systems offsets the need for increased variety by allowing the structures to increase in organizational complexity with little increase in algorithmic entropy. Chaitin's d-diameter complexity provides a measure of the level of order in nested replicating systems.
An Algorithmic Information Theory Critique of Statistical Arguments for Intelligent Design
Sean D Devine
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: In a number of books and articles including "The Design Inference" and "No Free Lunch", W. Dembski claims to have established a robust decision process that can determine when observed structures in the natural world can be attributed to design. Dembski's decision process first asks whether a structure as an outcome can be explained by the regularity of natural laws. If not, and the outcome can be "specified", a randomness test is devised to determine whether an observed low probability outcome indicates design. It is argued in this paper that the Dembski test is unworkable and is better formulated in terms of a Martin Loef universal randomness test. A universal randomness test will show that most observed outcomes in the natural world are non random; they are highly ordered. However this does not necessarily demonstrate design, as the decision is not between chance and design, but between natural laws and design. The Dembski decision template, which eliminates natural processes in the first decision step, is flawed, forcing a design outcome when none is warranted. Dembski also introduces a 4th law of thermodynamics, the law of conservation of information to argue information cannot emerge from random processes. However if a more robust measure of information based on algorithmic entropy is used, the so called 4th law is seen to contain no more than the second law of thermodynamics. In conclusion, despite the good intentions, the approach fails to offer any new insights into the adequacy of evolutionary theory and should not be regarded as demonstrable science.
A Scienceographic Comparison of Physics Papers from the arXiv and viXra Archives
David Kelk,David Devine
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: arXiv is an e-print repository of papers in physics, computer science, and biology, amongst others. viXra is a newer repository of e-prints on similar topics. Scienceography is the study of the writing of science. In this work we perform a scienceographic comparison of a selection of papers from the physics section of each archive. We provide the first study of the viXra archive and describe key differences on how science is written by these communities.
腐蚀科学与防护技术 , 2015, DOI: 10.11903/1002.6495.2014.279
Abstract: 研究了核电站蒸汽发生器传热管用合金材料在模拟压水堆一回路水环境中形成的腐蚀氧化膜,首次获得了原位振动光谱。Inconel600合金的拉曼谱中存在3个峰,540和610cm-1拉曼峰源自于表面生成的Cr2O3氧化膜,670cm-1峰对应于表面生成的FeCr2O4尖晶石产物,随着电位的增加,670cm-1峰的相对强度显著增强。Inconel690合金的表面氧化膜由Cr2O3构成,不含NiO或尖晶石成份。Inconel600合金发生应力腐蚀开裂(SCC)的敏感性与其表面氧化膜的变化存在关联性。Inconel690合金尚未发现SCC现象,这与其表面生成的稳定的氧化膜有关。
腐蚀科学与防护技术 , 2015, DOI: 10.11903/1002.6495.2015.018
Abstract: 利用原位表面增强型拉曼光谱(SERS)研究了Inconel600合金和Inconel690合金在高温高压水环境中生成的氧化膜特征。结果表明,Inconel600合金氧化膜的内层为薄且连续的Cr2O3,外层为非连续分布的FeCr2O4/NiFe2O4晶粒。Inconel690合金腐蚀氧化膜由单一连续的Cr2O3构成。从两个方面分析了本文SERS结果与他人研究成果之间的差异。一是合金在腐蚀的早期阶段形成Cr2O3内层,随着时间增加,转变成热力学稳定的富铬尖晶石;二是由不锈钢材料制成的高压釜和回路管道,溶液中含有大量的Fe2+和Ni2+,导致氧化膜中尖晶石相的生成。提出了合金氧化膜与腐蚀时间以及高压釜(含管道回路)材质都存在一定的关联性。
电网技术 , 2007,
Abstract: 在英国对气候变化这一挑战作出的反应导致了发电、配电和用电方面的重大变革。这些变革涉及到与“人”有关的各个课题,诸如公众信心、理解和对技术变化及体制变化的谅解等。但是,我们对于公众对电网故障的信心的理解与系统的改变之间却存在着种种差距。文章对此类差距进行研究,使用定性分析方法和应用社会表象理论来探究英国两个地区的公众信心。研究结果表明,大停电是与正面和反面的情感联想有关联的;公众信心依赖于童年和集体记忆以及未来对于“大型故障”的恐惧;人们察觉到英国电力供应的国际化背景,却发现英国的电网体制是“不可见”的。本文的研究结果对关于公众理解的普通假定提出了挑战。考虑到本研究的探索性本质,这些结果也间接表明将来对这些观点在英国的流行程度进行研究很有价值。
The potential of a new larviciding method for the control of malaria vectors
Gregor J Devine, Gerry F Killeen
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-142
Abstract: The basic tools for malaria vector control are the insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). These have a considerable impact on malaria transmission [1,2] by exposing female, host-seeking mosquitoes to insecticide-treated surfaces every time they enter a house to take a blood meal. Repeated contacts over the life cycle amplify the impact of these tools on transmission, even though their effect on mosquito density may remain limited [3]. However, fundamental limitations regarding the coverage of houses or sleeping spaces [3,4] ensure that ITNs and IRS alone may not stop malaria transmission in intensely endemic regions [5]. Moreover, these tools will not be optimally effective in areas where mosquitoes exhibit outdoor resting and biting behaviours, or where the widespread use of ITNs and IRS has controlled endophillic mosquitoes, but left a smaller, more intractable population of exophillic and exophagic mosquitoes behind (e.g. the appearance of Anopheles arabiensis as the most abundant vector in areas once dominated by An. gambiae and An. funestus [6,7]). The sustainability of IRS and ITNs is further threatened by the appearance of pyrethroid resistance in some mosquito populations [8]. All of these factors require that novel but complementary control methods are developed, that use novel insecticide classes that are not yet resisted.Targeting the aquatic habitat is one obvious additional strategy. This is an increasingly valued approach in many African settings [9] but larvicides, unlike IRS and ITNs, act on a single, non-transmitting stage in the mosquito lifecycle and can only impact disease by reducing vector abundance [10]. The myriad and cryptic nature of aquatic habitats and the difficulty in identifying and targeting the most productive of these [10] makes maximizing that impact very challenging.A recent field trial with the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, exploited the obligate behaviours of adult mosquitoes to transfer a potent l
Collision Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (T-Cell/Histiocyte-Rich) and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: A Pathologic and Clinical Evaluation  [PDF]
Lakshmi Rajappannair, Elaine Lam, Don Benson, Frederick Racke, Steven Devine, Weiqiang Zhao
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.36138
Abstract: A collision tumor of T and B-cell lymphomas occur rarely. In this article we report a collision tumor of anaplastic large cell lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma in a 46 year old female. The tumor showed predominantly neoplastic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) component expressing CD30 and ALK with smaller areas of CD20+ diffuse large B cell lymphoma component. Polymerase chain reaction for T-cell receptor beta and IgH (VDJ) gene rearrangements detected a clonal T cell and a clonal B cell population. The patient developed CSF involvement approximately 3 months after treatment. CSF analysis at this time showed only monoclonal T cells, probably due to clearing of the B cell component by the chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of a composite tumor of ALCL (lymphohistiocytic variant) and DLBCL. This case raises issues related to the classification of these composite lymphomas and the treatment on initial presentation and during relapse.
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