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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF A MATRIX-TYPE TRANSDERMAL PATCH CONTAINING RIVASTIGMINE TARTRATE
SWETHA VENNAPOOSA,DEVAREDDY SANDEEP
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Rivastigmine tartrate is an effective reverse cholinesterase inhibitor which binds to both the esteratic and ionic sites of AchE, preventing the enzyme from metabolizing Ach, resulting in higher levels of Ach in the brain. (In Alzheimer’s disease lower levels of Ach leads to impaired memory (dementia) and learning). Thus Rivastigmine tartrate is used in the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of Alzheimer’s disease. Though the drug is rapidly and completely absorbed following oral administration, it shows significant first-pass effect. Its half life is about 1.5 hrs. Gastro intestinal side effects like vomiting, diarrhea, increased acid secretion in stomach and reduced heart rates are reported. The drug Rivastigmine tartrate posses suitable characteristics such as low daily doses (1.5 to 6 mg twice daily), short half-life (1.5 hrs), low molecular weight (400.43 gms) and low melting point (123oC - 127oC) which is suitable for incorporation of drug in transdermal drug delivery system. These properties make Rivastigmine tartrate as a model drug for exploring its application as transdermal drug delivery system. To develope a matrix-type transdermal patch containing Rivastigmine tartrate using blend of polymers PVP and EC in the ratios 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 with 30% Dibutyl phthalate as a plasticizer.
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLETS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE
Baskara Haripriya,Devareddy Sandeep,T. Lavanya
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of the present research is to develop and evaluate a better sustained release multiple unit pellets (MUP) formulation of Tramadol hydrochloride. Dissolution and diffusion controlled systems have classically been of primary importance in oral delivery of medication because of their relative ease of production and cost compared with other methods of sustained or controlled delivery. Most of these systems are solids, although a few liquids and suspension have been recently introduced. The present work aimed at developing SR pellets of Tramadol HCl by Wurster process. FTIR studies showed no unacceptable extra peaks which confirm the absence of chemical interaction between the drug and polymer. Angle of repose, tapped density, bulk density values for the formulations were within the range which indicates that pellets prepared by Wurster process were satisfactory for further studies. The percentage drug content of Tramadol was determined by extraction with methanol and analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometer at 271nm.
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATIONS OF DICHROSTACHYS CINEREA
Swetha Vennapoosa,Devareddy Sandeep,K. Sumathi,N. Senthil Kumar
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: In underdeveloped countries, traditional and herbal medicines including folk medicinal practice scatters to nearly 70% of the population because of accessibility, affordability and the time tested dependability. They still depend on herbal medicine because of the side effect of most of the modern drugs. The medicinal activities are due to the presence of active principle in them. We have chosen the plant Dichrostachys cinerea (L) belonging to the family Mimosaceae for preliminary phyto chemical screening and to study the antimicrobial activity. Dichrostachys cinerea are traditionally used for antimicrobial, anticonvulsant. astringent (root); antihelminthic, purgative, laxative and diuretic (bark). In medicine, bark is used to alleviate headache, toothache, dysentery, elephantiasis and root infusions are consumed to treat leprosy, syphilis coughs, as an anthelmintic, purgative and strong diuretic. The leaves are particularly useful and can be taken to treat epilepsy and can also be taken as a diuretic and laxative, and its powder can be used in the massage of fractures. Based on the ethano pharmacological information’s, the present study is focused to evaluate Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial activity.
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM AND HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE CONVENTIONAL RELEASE TABLETS
Devareddy Sandeep,D.Krishnarajan,R.Manivannan,N.Senthilkumar
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The losartan potassium and hydrochlorthiazide tablets are prepared by using low substituted HPC as disintegrant. The addition of diuretics to angiotensin II receptor blockers will potentiate the action of angiotensin receptor blockers. The tablets are formulated using wet granulation technology using purified water as granulating agent. The tablets are evaluated for their weight, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution. A total of seven batches are punched and the first six are rejected as they do not complied with the specifications and the seventh batch is complied with all the specifications. The disintegrant used in the innovator product is croscarmellose and the disintegrant in the present study is low substituted hydroxy propyl cellulose. The dissolution profile of the optimised batch is compared with the innovator and the percentage drug release of the innovator product is 97% but it is increased to 99% as the disintegrant is changed.
Influence of Supernova SN Ia Rate and the Early Star Formation Rate on the Galactic Chemical Evolution  [PDF]
Sandeep Sahijpal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33038
Abstract:

Based on the recently developed numerical approach to understand the formation and the chemical evolution of the milky-way galaxy in the solar neighborhood we study the influence of the supernova type SN Ia rates on the galactic chemical evolution. Supernova SN Ia plays an important role in producing the iron inventory of the galaxy. We also study the dependence of the chemical evolution on the star formation rate prevailing during the initial one billion years of the evolution of the galaxy. This era marks the formation of the galactic halo and the thick disk. A comparison of the elemental abundance distributions of the dwarf stars in the solar neighborhood is made among the various models simulated in the present work. In order to explain the majority of the observed elemental evolutionary trends, specifically those related with the galactic evolution of iron and oxygen, it would be essential to incorporate a major component of prompt SN Ia to the galactic evolution. The prompt SN Ia would produce significant fraction of SN Ia within the initial ~100 million years from the time of star formation. The essential requirement of prompt SN Ia would result in a significant enhancement of SN Ia rates during the earliest epoch of the galaxy. The elemental evolutionary trends also favor an enhancement in the star formation rate during the initial one billion years of the galaxy at least by a factor of three compared to the trend prevailing during the latter evolutionary time of the galaxy.

Galaxy Formation and Chemical Evolution  [PDF]
Sandeep Sahijpal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.43045
Abstract:

The manner the galaxy accretes matter, along with the star formation rates at different epochs, influences the evolution of the stable isotopic inventories of the galaxy. A detailed analysis is presented here to study the dependence of the galactic chemical evolution on the accretion scenario of the galaxy along with the star formation rate during the early accretionary phase of the galactic thick disk and thin disk. Our results indicate that a rapid early accretion of the galaxy during the formation of the galactic thick disk along with an enhanced star formation rate in the early stages of the galaxy accretion could explain the majority of the galactic chemical evolution trends of the major elements. Further, we corroborate the recent suggestions regarding the formation of a massive galactic thick disk rather than the earlier assumed low mass thick disk.

Dietary Supplementation of Fructooligosaccharides Reduces Hepatic Steatosis Associated with Insulin Resistance in Obese Zucker Rats
Lydia Kaume,William Gilbert,Vidya Gadang,Latha Devareddy
Functional Foods in Health and Disease , 2011,
Abstract: Background: One in five adults in the United States is obese as defined by a body mass index of 30 kg/m2. Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These conditions present challenges to the medical care system and require a multifaceted approach through a variety of interventions. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) at the level of 5 % (w/w) in alleviating the complications associated with metabolic syndrome.Methods: The study was carried out using thirty-six, three-month old female lean and obese Zucker rats housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory. The Zucker rats were divided into three groups (N=12): Lean (L-CTRL) and obese controls (O-CTRL) and obese-FOS (O-FOS). The controls received AIN-93M purified rodent diet and the animals in the O-FOS group were fed AIN-93M diet modified to contain 5.0% FOS (w/w). After 100 days of treatment, the rats were fasted for 12 hours and sacrificed. Tissue and organs of interest, and blood were collected for analysis. Serum concentrations of the following were determined: glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and insulin.Functional Foods in Heals and Disease 2011; 5:199-213Gravimetric quantification of liver lipids was performed and peroxisome proliferator-activatedreceptor- (PPAR- ) gene expression was determined in white adipose tissue by qRT-PCR.Results: No significant differences were observed in the serum lipids, fasting blood glucose,HbA1c and PPAR- gene expression in white adipose tissue of O-FOS group compared to OCTRLgroup. FOS supplementation significantly lowered the percent total liver lipids by 12%with a subsequent reduction in the liver weights compared to O-CTRL rats. Serum insulinconcentrations were lowered 3.6 fold in O-FOS group compared to O-CTRL (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Based on these findings we conclude that dietary supplementation of 5% FOS(w/w) may reduce hepatic steatosis and the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)associated with insulin resistance without changes in blood lipids and glucose levels.
Nonlinear Blind Equalizers: NCMA and NMCMA  [PDF]
Donglin Wang, Sandeep Chandana
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.36070
Abstract: This paper proposes two nonlinear blind equalizers: the nonlinear constant modulus algorithm (NCMA) and the nonlinear modified constant modulus algorithm (NCMA) by applying a nonlinear transfer function (NTF) into constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and modified constant modulus algorithm (MCMA), respectively. The effect of the NTF on CMA and MCMA is theoretically analyzed, which implies that the NTF can make their decision regions much sharper so that the proposed two nonlinear blind equalizers are more robust against the convergency error compared to their linear counterparts. The embedded single layer in NCMA and NMCMA simultaneously guarantees a comparably speedy convergency. On 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) symbols, computer simulations show that NCMA achieves an 8dB lower convergency mean square error (MSE) than CMA, and NMCMA achieves a 15dB lower convergency MSE than MCMA.
Dynamic Identity Based Authentication Protocol for Two-Server Architecture  [PDF]
Sandeep K. Sood
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.34040
Abstract: Most of the password based authentication protocols make use of the single authentication server for user's authentication. User's verifier information stored on the single server is a main point of susceptibility and remains an attractive target for the attacker. On the other hand, multi-server architecture based authentication protocols make it difficult for the attacker to find out any significant authentication information related to the legitimate users. In 2009, Liao and Wang proposed a dynamic identity based remote user authentication protocol for multi-server environment. However, we found that Liao and Wang's protocol is susceptible to malicious server attack and malicious user attack. This paper presents a novel dynamic identity based authentication protocol for multi-server architecture using smart cards that resolves the aforementioned flaws, while keeping the merits of Liao and Wang's protocol. It uses two-server paradigm by imposing different levels of trust upon the two servers and the user's verifier information is distributed between these two servers known as the service provider server and the control server. The proposed protocol is practical and computational efficient because only nonce, one-way hash function and XOR operations are used in its implementation. It provides a secure method to change the user's password without the server's help. In e-commerce, the number of servers providing the services to the user is usually more than one and hence secure authentication protocols for multi-server environment are required.
On Secure Digital Image Watermarking Techniques  [PDF]
Manjit Thapa, Sandeep Kumar Sood
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2011.24017
Abstract: Digital watermarking is used to hide the information inside a signal, which can not be easily extracted by the third party. Its widely used application is copyright protection of digital information. It is different from the encryption in the sense that it allows the user to access, view and interpret the signal but protect the ownership of the content. One of the current research areas is to protect digital watermark inside the information so that ownership of the information cannot be claimed by third party. With a lot of information available on various search engines, to protect the ownership of information is a crucial area of research. In latest years, several digital watermarking techniques are presented based on discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete wavelets transform (DWT) and discrete fourier transforms (DFT). In this paper, we propose an algorithm for digital image watermarking technique based on singular value decomposition; both of the L and U components are explored for watermarking algorithm. This technique refers to the watermark embedding algorithm and watermark extracting algorithm. The experimental results prove that the quality of the watermarked image is excellent and there is strong resistant against many geometrical attacks.
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