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A Multisensor Analysis of the Life Cycle of Bow Echo over Indian Region
Devajyoti Dutta,Diganta Kumar Sarma,Sanjay Sharma
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/207064
Abstract: This study deals with the life cycle of bow echo events on October 24 and 26-27, 2006, from Doppler weather radar (DWR) observations supported by Radiosonde and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The cell bow echo (CBE) on October 24 evolved from two small isolated cells with radar reflectivity ≥40?dBZ. The vertical structure consists of one single mature cell with 20?dBZ echoes reaching up to 10?km while 40?dBZ echoes extended uniformly from ground to ~5?km height. The radial velocity shows a high value >?15?m/s towards the radar at the upper height (about 6 to 11?km); the lower height is predominant with velocity away from the radar (about 5 to 15?m/s). The squall line bow echo on October 26 and 27 has its origin over ocean and moved towards the radar site and decayed thereafter. The radar reflectivity pattern for this squall line showed it to be a trailing stratiform type squall line with length of ~200?km. The echo top height was more than 12?km in height. Strong inflow cases were observed from both radiosonde and radar. 1. Introduction The life cycle of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) can be studied with the help of on-board IR and microwave sensors as well as ground based Doppler weather radar (DWR) [1]. Though the geostationary IR data is very useful for the study of evolution of MCSs because of its large areal coverage, it can give only the cloud top information but unable to give details inside of the system. On the other hand, DWR can give much better information of the MCS but their coverage is limited, where the reliable observation >200?km is restricted due to the refraction of the transmitted signal. The passive microwave radiometer cannot be used for the study of the evolution of MCSs as these are carried by polar satellite with low repetition. A multisensor approach is useful approach to study the multifaceted characteristics of MCSs. Till date many of the studies of MCSs are performed with the help of both active and passive sensors: evolution (e.g., [2–6]), size and structure [7, 8], and reflectivity structures (e.g., [9–12]). The severe weather events are mostly associated with the organized MCSs such as bow echoes and squall lines. Bow echoes were named and described in detail by Fujita [13]. A bow echo is defined as a nontransient bow or crescent shaped radar signature with a high reflectivity gradient on the convex edge. Most of the time, they are associated with severe weather. According to Fujita [13] the bow echo commonly evolves from either a single convective cell or a line of cells. Klimowsky et al.
2. Influence of magnetic field and slip velocity on pulsatile blood flow through a constricted artery
Devajyoti Biswas,Rezia Begum Laskar
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research (IJPBR) , 2011,
Abstract: The present study deals with blood flow through a single constricted artery in presence of magnetic field and slip velocity. Blood is considered here as Newtonian incompressible fluid. Perturbation method is used to obtain the analytical expressions for velocity profile, wall shear stress, apparent viscosity, flow rate and resistance to flow of blood. Physical interpretation of obtained expressions is shown here for better understanding of the problem.
A Framework to Identify Economic and Community Benefits of the Proposed BRT System in Southeast Michigan  [PDF]
Utpal Dutta
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2017.52010
Abstract: In recent years, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has generated great interest across the United States. There are more than 20 BRT systems in existence and more are in the planning stage (including Detroit). Within the next few years, BRT will be planned and implemented phase by phase in various parts of Southeast Michigan. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework to identify probable economic and community benefits (quantitative as well as qualitative) of BRT in Southeast Michigan. Taxable Real Estate property, employment sector, population age group, daily vehicle miles traveled, as well as congestion level data were reviewed to identify Southeast Michigan’s current and future trends. A Shift-Share analysis using data from Cleveland was performed to determine BRT-advantaged age group. The authors suggested a number of action items to attract choice riders and excite transit dependent riders to the planned BRT system. Based on the literature review and analysis, the authors identified BRT-advantaged job sectors and age-groups within the Southeast Michigan region. As BRT will be implemented in phases, it will affect the amount, type and time of investment. Considering this uncertainty in implementation, projected economic benefit as a function of type and amount of investment was presented. It is to be noted that in order to achieve the desired outcome the system must be planned/designed/implemented within the context of Southeast Michigan rather than just copying a successful system from somewhere else.
Molecular Motors—Self-Organization of Cytoskeletal Network  [PDF]
Kishore Dutta
Yangtze Medicine (YM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ym.2017.14021
Abstract: Molecular motors play an important role in the organization of cytoskeletal filament networks. These nanometer-sized natural molecular machines opened up a new frontier of nano-technology. This article describes biomolecular nano-machines, their internal structures, and dynamical interactions between molecular motors and their molecular tracks which reorganize a network of long protein filaments, particularly during cell division to form cytoskeleton of daughter cells. Towards the end, the article also takes up some still-to-be resolved matters and prospects for future developments in this exciting multidisciplinary area of science.
Algorithmic Optimization of BDDs and Performance Evaluation for Multi-level Logic Circuits with Area and Power Trade-offs  [PDF]
Saurabh Chaudhury, Anirban Dutta
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2011.23031
Abstract: Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) can be graphically manipulated to reduce the number of nodes and hence the area. In this context, ordering of BDDs play a major role. Most of the algorithms for input variable ordering of OBDD focus primarily on area minimization. However, suitable input variable ordering helps in minimizing the power consumption also. In this particular work, we have proposed two algorithms namely, a genetic algorithm based technique and a branch and bound algorithm to find an optimal input variable order. Of course, the node reordering is taken care of by the standard BDD package buddy-2.4. Moreover, we have evaluated the performances of the proposed algorithms by running an exhaustive search program. Experi-mental results show a substantial saving in area and power. We have also compared our techniques with other state-of-art techniques of variable ordering for OBDDs and found to give superior results.
Feasibility Study of 1 MW Standalone Hybrid Energy System: For Technical Institutes  [PDF]
Pragya Nema, Sayan Dutta
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2012.33009
Abstract: Hybrid energy system (HES) is a combination of different renewable resources such as wind, solar, biomass, small/micro hydro, with fossil fuel powered diesel generator to provide electric power. This paper gives the design idea of optimized Hybrid Energy System for a certain technical college over a conventional diesel generator for a particular site in eastern India (Kolkata). For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Kolkata-Eastern India (Longitude 88°22’and Latitude 22°34’) and the pattern of load consumption of technical college are studied and suitably modelled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. This paper gives the detail hypothetical study for standalone hybrid energy system for technical institute in five stages: (a) recent electric bill of the college for the year 2011. (b) Studying the load demand for every month in a year. (c) Calculating the maximum, minimum and the average load demand. (d) Introducing the solar data in HOMER software. (e) Designing the hybrid model. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate 70% - 80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. The action plan is formed on the basis of cost effective modelling that is minimization of energy production cost in a long run.
Reinforcement of Polypropylene Composite system via Fillers and Compatibilizers  [PDF]
Neelam Singh, Santanu Dutta
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2013.31002
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to compare the mechanical properties of the different PP/ Filler composites. We considered the effect of treatment of the filler on the adhesion between the filler and the matrix. Modification of polypropylene (PP) with different coated and uncoated fillers is investigated in this paper. Six types of different fillers are used for preparation of filled PP composites. The composite samples were homogenized in a twin screw extruder. The compatibility of PP and fillers focused in this study and modified by using coupling agent. The obtained values of composites were cor- related with mechanical properties.
Apply AHP for Resource Allocation Problem in Cloud  [PDF]
Avtar Singh, Kamlesh Dutta
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.310002
Abstract: Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm with many applications that are integrated with IT organization having the freedom to migrate services between different physical servers. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a pairwise comparison matrix technique for applications has been used for serving resources. AHP is a mathematical technique for multi-criteria decision-making used in cloud computing. The growth in cloud computing for resource allocation is sudden and raises complex issues with quality of services for selecting applications. Finally, based on the selected criteria, applications are ranked using the pairwise comparison matrix of AHP to determine the most effective scheme. The presented AHP technique represents a well-balanced multi criteria priorities synthesis of various applications effect factors that must be taken into consideration when making complex decisions of this nature. Keeping in view wide range of applications of cloud computing an attempt has been made to develop multiple criteria decision making model.
Gender Differences in Technology Usage—A Literature Review  [PDF]
Ananya Goswami, Sraboni Dutta
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.41006
Abstract: The usage of Information Technology has expanded dramatically in today’s homes, business organizations and Government departments Technology has become an inevitable part of human life. Researchers have come up with various models and theories to investigate factors that influence the extent to which humans use computers and its applications. Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is the latest model which has been conceived to understand the nature of technology usage and has been applied in various domains like education, banking, health care etc. Gender has been attributed as a significant variable in explaining the technology acceptance behaviour of humans. The objective of this study is to review the existing literature on the technology usage and intention to use technology from the gender perspective. It has been observed from the review that in few contexts, gender plays a significant role in determining the intention of accepting new technology and there are cases where gender differences cannot be discerned.
Intelligent Bayes Classifier (IBC) for ENT infection classification in hospital environment
Ritaban Dutta, Ritabrata Dutta
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-5-65
Abstract: An electronic nose (e-nose) is an instrument that has been developed as a simplified "electronic" model of the human olfactory system. To humans, the sensation of flavour is due to three main chemoreceptor systems. These are gustation (sense of taste by tongue), olfaction (sense of smell by nose) and trigeminal (sense of irritation of trigeminal receptors). The sense of taste is used to detect certain non-volatile chemicals, which enter the mouth while the sense of smell is used to detect certain volatile compounds. Receptors for the trigeminal sense are located in the mucous membranes and in the skin, they respond to certain volatile chemicals and it is thought to be especially important in the detection of irritants and chemically reactive species. In the perception of flavour all three chemoreceptor systems are involved but olfaction plays by far the greatest role. An electronic nose (e-nose) is an instrument that is designed to detect and discriminate different complex odours using a sensor array. The sensor array consists of broadly tuned (non-specific) sensors that are treated with a variety of odour-sensitive chemical materials [1,2].An odour stimulus generates a characteristic fingerprint (or smell-print) from the sensor array. Patterns, or fingerprints, from known odours are then used to construct a database and train a pattern recognition system so that unknown odours can subsequently be classified, i.e. identified. Thus, e-noses comprise of mechanical components to collect and transport odours to the sensor array as well as electronic circuitry to digitize and store the sensor responses for signal processing.Gardner and Bartlett defined an electronic nose as "An instrument, which comprises an array of electronic chemical sensors with partial specificity and an appropriate pattern recognition system, capable of recognizing simple or complex odours". The EN system is designed for automated detection and classification of odours, vapours, and gases. It can a
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